WotR:Army Official Records (Serial 001)

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Preface

This preface included in each edition explains how the Official Records series came to be.

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By an act approved June 23, 1874, Congress made an appropriation "to enable the Secretary of War to begin the publication of the Official Records of the War of the Rebellion, both of the Union and Confederate Armies," and directed him "to have copied for the Public Printer all reports, letters, telegrams, and general orders not heretofore copied or printed, and properly arranged in chronological order."

Appropriations for continuing such preparation have been made from time to time, and the act approved June 16, 1880, has provided "for the printing and binding, under direction of the Secretary of War, of 10,000 copies of a compilation of the Official Records (Union and Confederate) of the War of the Rebellion, so far as the same may be ready for publication, during the fiscal year"; and that "of said number, 7,000 copies shall be for the use of the House of Representatives, 2,000 copies for the use of the Senate, and 1,000 copies for the use of the Executive Departments."

This compilation will be the first general publication of the military records of the war, and will embrace all official documents that can be obtained by the compiler, and that appear to be of any historical value.

The publication will present the records in the following order of arrangement:

The 1st Series will embrace the formal reports, both Union and Confederate, of the first seizures of United States property in the Southern States, and of all military operations in the field, with the correspondence, orders, and returns relating specially thereto, and, as proposed, is to be accompanied by an Atlas.

In this series the reports will be arranged according to the campaigns and several theaters of operations (in the chronological order of the events), and the Union reports of any event will, as a rule, be immediately followed by the Confederate accounts. The correspondence, not embraced in the "reports" proper will follow (first Union and next Confederate) in chronological order.

The 2d Series will contain the correspondence, orders, reports, and returns, Union and Confederate, relating to prisoners of war, and (so far as the military authorities were concerned) to State or political, prisoners.

The 3d Series will contain the correspondence, orders, reports, and returns of the Union authorities (embracing their correspondence with the Confederate officials) not relating specially to the subjects of the first and second series. It will set forth the annual and special reports of the Secretary of War, of the General-in-Chief, and of the chiefs of the several staff corps and departments; the calls for troops, and the correspondence between the National and the several State authorities.

The 4th Series will exhibit the correspondence, orders, reports, and returns of the Confederate authorities, similar to that indicated for the Union officials, as of the third series, but excluding the correspondence between the Union and Confederate authorities given in that series.

ROBERT N. SCOTT,
Major, Third Art., and Bvt. Lieut. Col.
WAR DEPARTMENT, August 23, 1880.
Approved:
ALEX. RAMSEY,
Secretary of War.





Summary of the Principal Events

SERIES 1 - VOLUME 1 - SUMMARY OF THE PRINCIPAL EVENTS
Date Event
December 20, 1860 Ordinance of secession adopted by the South Carolina Convention
December 26, 1860 United States troops, under command of Maj. R. Anderson, transferred from Fort Moultrie to Fort Sumter
December 27, 1860 Castle Pinckney and Fort Moultrie seized by the State troops
December 30, 1860 United States Arsenal at Charleston seized by the State troops
January 2, 1861 Fort Johnson seized by the State troops
January 5, 1861 First expedition for the relief of Fort Sumter sails from New York Harbor
January 9, 1861 Steamship Star of the West fired upon by the State troops
January 11, 1861 Surrender of Fort Sumter demanded of Major Anderson by the governor of South Carolina and refused[1]
March 1, 1861 The Government of the Confederate States assumes control of military affairs at Charleston
March 3, 1861 Brig. Gen. G. T. Beauregard, C. S. Army, assumes command at Charleston
April 3, 1861 Schooner Rhoda H. Shannon fired upon by the Confederate batteries
April 10, 1861 Second expedition for the relief of Fort Sumter sails from New York Harbor
April 11, 1861 Evacuation of Fort Sumter demanded by General Beauregard
April 12-14, 1861 Bombardment and evacuation of Fort Sumter




Volume Contents

The first volume of the Army Official Records Series is divided into several chapters detailing specific events and operations in several southern and southwestern states and territories.

Chapter 1 - December 26, 1860 - April 14, 1861: Operations in Charleston Harbor, South Carolina Dispatches
A map of Charleston Harbor in 1861, showing the positions occupied by South Carolina State Troops that fired on Fort Sumter during the engagement. Map by Hal Jesperson.

This first chapter opens the Army Official Records series in Charleston Harbor, South Carolina, at the genesis of the Civil War. The South Carolina legislature passes its unprecedented Ordinance of Secession, and State Troops and militias begin seizing federal property within the state borders.

United States Army Major Robert Anderson commands two skeleton companies of United States Artillery Troops garrisoned at Fort Moultrie on Sullivan's Island, many of whom are only musicians. Realizing his current position is in imminent danger of attack or capture by the State troops, he opts to move his troops to a more heavily fortified (but as of yet unfinished) Fort Sumter in the middle of the harbor. He acts without orders, prompting a panic by federal officials and excitement from the general population North and South. All watch anxiously and many begin prepare for the inevitable conflict ahead.

The fort spends several months under siege from the hostile South Carolina troops, who repel several attempts by the federal government to resupply the garrison. On April 11, the South Carolina troops under G.T. Beauregard demand the surrender of the Fort. When Anderson refuses, South Carolina troops open fire for two days on the Fort. The structure itself is very severely damaged, but Anderson and his troops are unharmed.

Though posterity officially refers to this action as the Battle of Fort Sumter, these reports detail Confederate activity at several different batteries on various islands around the harbor culminating in the final bombardment.

These dispatches were compiled with primary source materials from The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies (Chapter 1)

Timeline of Events
December 20, 1860 - April 14, 1861 - OPERATIONS IN CHARLESTON HARBOR, SOUTH CAROLINA
December 20, 1860 Ordinance of Secession adopted by the South Carolina Convention
December 26-27, 1860 United States troops garrisoned at Fort Moultrie under command of Major Robert Anderson evacuate and occupy Fort Sumter
December 27, 1860 South Carolina State Troops seize Castle Pinckney
December 27, 1860 South Carolina State Troops seize Fort Moultrie
December 30, 1860 South Carolina State Troops seize the United States Arsenal at Charleston
January 2, 1861 South Carolina State Troops seize Fort Johnson
January 5, 1861 Steamship Star of the West sails from New York Harbor to relieve Major Anderson's Troops at Fort Sumter
January 9, 1861 South Carolina State Troops fire upon Star of the West when it arrives at Charleston Harbor, forcing it to turn back
January 11, 1861 South Carolina Governor Francis Pickens issues the first demand to Major Anderson to surrender the fort, and is refused
March 1, 1861 The government of the Confederate States assumes control of military affairs at Charleston
March 3, 1861 Brigadier General G.T. Beauregard of the Confederate States Army assumes command of South Carolina troops at Charleston
March 4, 1861 President Lincoln inaugurated
April 3, 1861 Confederate troops on Morris Island open fire on schooner Rhonda H. Shannon
April 10, 1861 A second relief mission sails from New York Harbor to relieve Fort Sumter
April 11, 1861 Brigadier General Beauregard issues a second demand to Major Anderson to surrender the fort, and is refused
April 12-14, 1861 Confederate troops bombard Fort Sumter, resulting in no human casualties on either side
April 14, 1861 Major Anderson surrenders the fort and is allowed to leave peacefully
Table of Contents
  • No. 1. - Robert Anderson (Major, 1st United States Artillery) of the evacuation of Fort Moultrie
  • No. 2. - Extracts from annual report of John G. Foster (Captain, U.S. Corps of Engineers) relating to the evacuation of Fort Moultrie, the seizure of Castle Pinckney and Fort Johnson, and operations at Fort Sumter
  • No. 3. - F.C. Humphreys (Ordnance Storekeeper, U.S. Army) of the seizure of the United States Arsenal at Charleston, and correspondence
  • No. 4. - Charles R. Woods (Lieutenant, 9th U.S. Infantry) of first expedition for relief of Fort Sumter
  • No. 5. - G.V. Fox (Captain, U.S. agent) of the second expedition for relief of Fort Sumter
  • No. 6. - Robert Anderson (Major, 1st United States Artillery) commanding U.S. troops*
  • No. 7. - Engineer Journal kept by John G. Foster (Captain, U.S. Corps of Engineers)*
  • No. 8. - G.T. Beauregard (Brigadier General, Confederate States Army) commanding Confederate troops*
  • No. 9. - R.G.M. Dunovant (Brigadier General, South Carolina Army)
  • No. 10. - James Simons (Brigadier General, South Carolina Army)
  • No. 11. - R.S. Ripley (Lieutenant Colonel, South Carolina Army)
  • No. 12. - Wilmot G. De Saussure (Lieutenant Colonel, South Carolina Army)
  • No. 13. - P.F. Stevens (Major, South Carolina Army)
  • No. 14. - R. Martin (Captain, South Carolina Army)
  • No. 15. - William Butler (Captain, South Carolina Army)
  • No. 16. - W.R. Calhoun (Captain, South Carolina Army) commanding Sumter battery at Fort Moultrie
  • No. 17. - J. H. Hallonquist (Captain, South Carolina Army) commanding mortar and enfilading batteries
  • No. 18. - Thomas M. Wagner (Lieutenant, South Carolina Army)
  • No. 19. - Alfred Rhett (Lieutenant, South Carolina Army)
  • No. 20. - Jacob Valentine (Lieutenant, South Carolina Army)
  • No. 21. - G.B. Cuthbert (Captain, South Carolina Army)
  • No. 22. - J. Gadsden King (Captain, Marion Artillery)
  • No. 23. - J.E. McP. Washington (Lieutenant, South Carolina Army)
  • No. 24. - C.W. Parker (Lieutenant, South Carolina Army)
  • No. 25. - James Chesnut (Jr.) (Aide-de-Camp, Confederate Provisional Forces), Cot. A.R. Chisolm (Lieutenant, Confederate Provisional Forces), S. D. Lee (Captain, Confederate Provisional Forces), and Messrs. John L. Manning (Aide-de-Camp, Confederate Provisional Forces), William Porcher Miles (Aide-de-Camp, Confederate Provisional Forces), and Roger A. Pryor (Aide-de-Camp, Confederate Provisional Forces)
  • No. 26. - Joint reports of D.R. Jones (Major and Assistant Adjutant-General, Confederate States Army), and Charles Alston (Jr.) (Colonel, Confederate States Army), H.J. Hartstene (Commander, Confederate States Navy), and Messrs. William Porcher Miles (Aide-de-Camp, Confederate States Army), and Roger A. Pryor (Aide-de-Camp, Confederate States Army)
  • No. 27. - R.W. Gibbes (Surgeon General, South Carolina Army)
  • No. 28. - H.J. Hartstene (Commander, Confederate States Navy)
  • Misc. Union Correspondence (286 entries)
  • Misc. Confederate Correspondence (184 entries)


* See also Union and Confederate correspondence and orders

No. 01

No. 01 - Reports of Robert Anderson (Major, 1st United States Artillery)

Major Robert Anderson commands small garrisons of Battery E and Battery H of the 1st United States Artillery at the outbreak of the war. These reports detail his evacuation of the indefensible Fort Moultrie and occupation of the better fortified Fort Sumter in the middle of Charleston Harbor.

December 26, 1860 - Major Robert Anderson to Adjutant General Samuel Cooper

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Reports of Maj. Robert Anderson, U.S. Army, of the evacuation of Fort Moultrie, S.C.

No. 11.]
FORT SUMTER, S.C.,
December 26, 1860
8 p.m.

(Received A.G.O., December 29.)

COLONEL: I have the honor to report that I have just completed, by the blessing of God, the removal to this fort of all of my garrison, except the surgeon, four non-commissioned officers, and seven men. We have one year's supply of hospital stores and about four months' supply of provisions for my command. I left orders to have all the guns at Fort Moultrie spiked, and the carriages of the 32-pounders, which are old, destroyed. I have sent orders to Captain Foster, who remains at Fort Moultrie, to destroy all the ammunition which he cannot send over. The step which I have taken was, in my opinion, necessary to prevent the effusion of blood. Respectfully, your obedient servant,

ROBERT ANDERSON,
Major, First Artillery, Commanding.

to Colonel S. COOPER,
Adjutant-General.


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December 27, 1860 - Secretary John Buchanan Floyd to Major Robert Anderson

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Reports of Maj. Robert Anderson, U.S. Army, of the evacuation of Fort Moultrie, S.C.

[Telegram.]
WAR DEPARTMENT,
Adjutant-General's Office,
December 27, 1860.

Major ANDERSON,
Fort Moultrie:

Intelligence has reached here this morning that you have abandoned Fort Moultrie, spiked your guns, burned the carriages, and gone to Fort Sumter. It is not believed, because there is no order for any such movement. Explain the meaning of this report.

J.B. FLOYD,
Secretary of War


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December 27, 1860 - Major Robert Anderson to Secretary John B. Floyd

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Reports of Maj. Robert Anderson, U.S. Army, of the evacuation of Fort Moultrie, S.C.

[Telegram.]

CHARLESTON,
December 27, 1860.

Honorable J. B. FLOYD,
Secretary of War:

The telegram is correct. I abandoned Fort Moultrie because I was certain that if attacked my men must have been sacrificed, and the command of the harbor lost. I spiked the guns and destroyed the carriages to keep the guns from being used against us. If attacked, the garrison would never have surrendered without a fight.

ROBERT ANDERSON,
Major, First Artillery.


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December 27, 1860 - Major Robert Anderson to Adjutant General Samuel Cooper

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Reports of Maj. Robert Anderson, U.S. Army, of the evacuation of Fort Moultrie, S.C.

No. 12.]

FORT SUMTER, S.C.,
December 27, 1860.

(Received A.G.O., December 31.)

COLONEL: I had the honor to reply this afternoon to the telegram of the honorable Secretary of War in reference to the abandonment of Fort Moultrie. In addition to the reasons given in my telegram and in my letter of last night, I will add as my opinion that many things convinced me that the authorities of the State designed to proceed to a hostile act. Under this impression I could not hesitate that it was my solemn duty to move my command from a fort which we could not probably have held longer than forty-eight or sixty hours, to this one, where my power of resistance is increased to a very great degree. The governor of this State sent down one of his aides to-day and demanded, "courteously, but peremptorily," that I should return my command to Fort Moultrie. I replied that I could not and would not do so. He stated that when the governor came into office he found that there was an understanding between his predecessor and the President that no re-enforcements were to be sent to any of these forts, and particularly to this one, and that I had violated this agreement by having re-enforced this fort. I remarked that I had not re-enforced this command, but that I had merely transferred my garrison from one fort to another, and that, as the commander of this harbor, I had a right to move my men into any fort I deemed proper. I told him that the removal was made on my own responsibility, and that I did it because we were in a position that we could not defend, and also under the firm belief that it was the best means of preventing bloodshed. This afternoon an armed steamer, one of two which have been watching these two forts, between which they have been passing to and fro or anchored for the last ten nights, took possession by escalate of Castle Pinckney. Lieutenant Meade made no resistance. He is with us to-night. They also took possession to-night of Fort Moultrie, from which I withdrew the remainder of my men this afternoon, leaving the fort in charge of the overseer of the men employed by the Engineer Department. We have left about one month's and a half of provisions in that fort; also some wood and coal and a small quantity of ammunition. We are engaged here to-day in mounting guns and in closing up some of the openings for the embrasures-temporarily closed by light boards, but which would offer but slight resistance no persons seeking entrance. If the workmen return to their work, which I doubt, we shall be enabled in three or four days to have a sufficient number of our guns mounted, and be ready for anything that may occur.

I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

ROBERT ANDERSON,
Major, First Artillery, Commanding.

to Colonel S. COOPER,
Adjutant-General.


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No. 02

No. 02 - Report of John G. Foster (Captain, U.S. Corps of Engineers)

In these extracts from his Annual Report, Captain John Gray Foster of the U.S. Corps of Engineers describes the evacuation of Fort Moultrie, the seizure of Castle Pinckney and Fort Johnson, and operations at Fort Sumter.

October 1, 1861 - Captain John Foster

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Extracts from annual report (October 1, 1861) of Captain John G. Foster, U.S. Corps of Engineers

...

Castle Pinckney, Charleston Harbor, South Carolina. - Some necessary repairs were commenced upon this work in December, 1860, but before these were completed the fort was seized by the troops of the State of South Carolina, on the 27th of December. Lieutenant R. K. Meade, Corps of Engineers, who was in the immediate charge, was suffered to leave with the workmen; but all the public property in the fort was taken possession of, including the mess property and one month's provisions for the Engineer force. The armament of the fort was all mounted, except two or three guns on the barbette tier and one 42-pounder in the casemate tier. The carriages were in good order, and pretty good. The magazine was well furnished with implements, and also contained some powder. The fort was repaired three years ago, and was generally in excellent condition, one of the cisterns only wanting repairs.

Fort Johnson, Charleston, South Carolina. - The barracks and quarters were in such bad order as to be almost uninhabitable, and a large sum would be needed to repair them. The position was taken possession of by the State troops on the 2nd of January, 1861. A small battery of three guns was soon after built, adjoining the barracks.

Fort Sumter, Charleston Harbor, South Carolina. - Vigorous operations were commenced on this fort in the month of August, 1860, with the view of placing it in a good defensive position as soon as possible. The casemate arches supporting the second tier of guns were all turned; the granite flagging for the second tier was laid on the right face of the work; the floors laid, and the iron stairways put up, in the east barracks; the traverse circles of the first tier of guns reset; the bluestone flagging laid in all the guns' rooms of the right and left faces of the first tier; and the construction of the embrasures of the second tier commenced at the time the fort was occupied by Major Anderson's command, on the 26th of December, 1860. The fears of an immediate attack, and disloyal feelings, induced the greater portion of the Engineer employes to leave at this time. But those that remained, fifty-five in number, reduced towards the end of the investment to thirty-five, were made very effective in preparing for a vigorous defense.

The armament of the fort was mounted and supplied with maneuvering implements; machicoulis galleries, splinter-proof shelters, and traverses were constructed; the openings left for the embrasures of the second tier were filled with brick and stone and earth, and those in the gorge with stone and iron and lead concrete; mines were established in the wharf and along the gorge; the parade was cleared, and communications opened to all parts of the fort and through the quarters.

The fort was bombarded on the 12th and 13th of April by the rebels, and evacuated by Major Anderson's command on the 14th of April. During the bombardment, the officers' quarters were set on fire by hot shot from the rebel batteries, and they, with the roofs of the barracks, were entirely consumed. The magazines were uninjured by the fire. The bombardment dismounted one gun, disabled two others, and ruined the stair towers and the masonry walls projecting above the parapet. No breach was effected in the walls, and the greatest penetration made by successive shots was twenty-two inches. Nearly all the material that had been obtained to construct the embrasures of the second tier, to flag this tier and the remainder of the first tier, and to finish the barracks, was used up in the preparations for defense.

Fort Moultrie, Charleston Harbor, South Carolina. - The work of preparing this fort for a vigorous defense commenced in August, 1860, and was diligently prosecuted up the day of its evacuation, December 26, 1860. In this time the large accumulation of sand, which overtopped the scarp wall on the sea front, was removed to the front and formed into a glacis; a wet ditch, fifteen feet wide, dug around the fort; two flanking caponieres of brick built, to flank with their fire the three water fronts; a bastioned for musketry constructed at the northwest angle; a picket fence built around the fort, bordering the ditch, and protected by a small glacis; merlons constructed on the whole of the east front; communication opened through the quarters, a bridge built, connecting them with the guard-house, and the latter looppholed for musketry, so as to serve for a citadel.

Means were also furnished to transport Major Anderson's command, and such public property as could be removed before the occupation of Fort Moultrie by the rebels, to Fort Sumter. Before evacuating the fort, the guns were spiked, the gun carriages on the front looking towards Fort Sumter burned, and the flagstaff cut down. A considerable quantity of Engineer implements and materials were unavoidably left in the fort.

Respectfully submitted.

J.G. FOSTER,
Captain, Engineers.


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No. 03

No. 03 - Reports of F.C. Humphreys (Ordnance Storekeeper, United States Army)

In these reports and correspondences, Ordnance Storekeeper F.C. Humphreys of the U.S. Army describes the seizure of Charleston Arsenal.

December 28, 1860 - Captain Frederick Humphreys to Captain William Maynadier

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Reports of and correspondence with Ordnance Storekeeper F.C. Humphreys, U.S. Army, in reference to seizure of Charleston Arsenal.

CHARLESTON,
December 28, 1860.

Captain WM. MAYNADIER,
Ordnance Bureau:

A body of South Carolina military now surround the arsenal, outside, however, of the inclosure, but denying ingress or egress without countersign. The officer in command disclaims any intention of occupancy, and the United States flag is undisturbed. I await instructions.

F.C. HUMPHREYS.


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December 29, 1860 - Captain Frederick Humphreys to Captain William Maynadier

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Reports of and correspondence with Ordnance Storekeeper F.C. Humphreys, U.S. Army, in reference to seizure of Charleston Arsenal.

CHARLESTON ARSENAL, S.C.,
December 29, 1860.

Captain WM. MAYNADIER,
In charge of Ordnance Bureau, Washington, D.C.:

SIR: I reported by telegraph on the 28th instant that this arsenal was surrounded by a body of South Carolina militia, and that myself and the command are not allowed to pass in or out without a countersign. Those in authority disclaim any intention of occupying the post, nor do they molest the flag. I asked for instructions, but have received none.

I protest (the disclaimer notwithstanding) that this post is to all intents and purposes in the possession of the South Carolina troops, and also against the indignity offered me as an officer of the United States Army, to say nothing of the announce the entire command is subjected to by this measure.

I shall, therefore, unless otherwise instructed from the War Department, make a formal protest against the posting of sentinels around this arsenal, and request that they be removed, which, if denied, I shall consider an occupancy of it by the State, and shall haul down my flag and surrender.

I respectfully submit that such a course is proper, and due to myself and the position I occupy as commanding officer. Very respectfully, I am, sir, your most obedient servant,

F.C. HUMPHREYS,
Military Storekeeper Ordnance, Commanding.

[Indorsement.]


ORDNANCE OFFICE
January 1, 1861

Respectfully submitted to the Secretary of War.

WM. MAYNADIER
Captain of Ordnance.



[Inclosure.]

December 30, 1861 - Abstract from muster-roll of Frederick Humphreys

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Reports of and correspondence with Ordnance Storekeeper F.C. Humphreys, U.S. Army, in reference to seizure of Charleston Arsenal.

Abstract from muster-roll of F.C. Humphreys, military storekeeper of ordnance, dated to include the 30th day of December, 1860.

Present: Brevet Colonel Benjamin Huger, who assumed command November 20, by order of the Secretary of War, and who was absent under orders from the Adjutant-General's Office, dated December 1, 1860, and assumed his former duty at Pikesville Arsenal, by instructions of the Secretary of War, dated December 15, 1860.

F.C. Humphreys, military storekeeper, who resumed command of post December 7, 1860. Fourteen enlisted men.

F.C. HUMPHREYS,
Military Storekeeper, U.S. ARMY.


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December 30, 1861 - Abstract from muster-roll of Frederick Humphreys

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Reports of and correspondence with Ordnance Storekeeper F.C. Humphreys, U.S. Army, in reference to seizure of Charleston Arsenal.

Abstract from muster-roll of F.C. Humphreys, military storekeeper of ordnance, dated to include the 30th day of December, 1860.

Present: Brevet Colonel Benjamin Huger, who assumed command November 20, by order of the Secretary of War, and who was absent under orders from the Adjutant-General's Office, dated December 1, 1860, and assumed his former duty at Pikesville Arsenal, by instructions of the Secretary of War, dated December 15, 1860.

F.C. Humphreys, military storekeeper, who resumed command of post December 7, 1860. Fourteen enlisted men.

F.C. HUMPHREYS,
Military Storekeeper, U.S. ARMY.


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December 30, 1860 - Captain Frederick Humphreys to Captain William Maynadier

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Reports of and correspondence with Ordnance Storekeeper F.C. Humphreys, U.S. Army, in reference to seizure of Charleston Arsenal.

CHARLESTON, S.C.,
December 30, 1860.

SIR: This arsenal has to-day been taken by force of arms. What disposition am I to make of my command?

F.C. HUMPHREYS.

to Captain MAYNADIER,
In charge of Ordnance Bureau.


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December 31, 1861 - Captain Frederick Humphreys to Captain William Maynadier

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Reports of and correspondence with Ordnance Storekeeper F.C. Humphreys, U.S. Army, in reference to seizure of Charleston Arsenal.

CHARLESTON ARSENAL, S.C.,
December 31, 1860.

SIR: I have the honor to submit the correspondence relative to the surrender of this post yesterday to the authorities of this State. Trusting that my course may meet the approval of the Department.

I am, sir, very respectfully,

F.C. HUMPHREYS,
Military Storekeeper Ordnance, U.S.A.

to Capt. WM. MAYNADIER,
In charge of Ordnance Bureau, Washington, D.C.

[Inclosures.]

December 29, 1860 - Governor Francis Pickens to Colonel John Cunningham

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Reports of and correspondence with Ordnance Storekeeper F.C. Humphreys, U.S. Army, in reference to seizure of Charleston Arsenal.

HEADQUARTERS,
CHARLESTON, S.C.,
December 29, 1860.

SIR: In the morning, after reporting yourself to Major-General Schneirle, and informing him of this order, you are directed to get from him a detachment of select men, and in the most discrete and forbearing manner you will proceed to the U.S. Arsenal in Charleston, and there demand in my name, its entire possession, and state distinctly that you do this with a view to prevent any destruction of public property that may occur in the present excited state of the public mind, and also as due to the public safety. You will then proceed to take, in the most systematic manner, a correct inventory of everything in said arsenal, and the exact state of all arms, &c.

You will read this order to Captain Humphreys, who is the United States officer at the arsenal.

I do not apprehend any difficulty in giving up the same, but if refused, then you are to take it, using no more force than may be absolutely necessary, and with the greatest discretion and liberality to Captain Humphreys, who is at perfect liberty to remain in his present quarters as long as it may be agreeable for himself, and he is requested to do so. Report as soon as possible to me.

F.W. PICKENS.

to Colonel JOHN CUNNINGHAM.


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December 30, 1860 - Captain Frederick Humphreys to Colonel John Cunningham

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Reports of and correspondence with Ordnance Storekeeper F.C. Humphreys, U.S. Army, in reference to seizure of Charleston Arsenal.

CHARLESTON ARSENAL, S.C.,
December 30, 1860.

SIR: I am constrained to comply with your demand for the surrender of this arsenal, from the fact that I have no force for its defense. I do so, however, solemnly protesting against the illegality of this measure in the name of my Government.

I also demand, as a right, that I be allowed to salute my flag, before lowering it, with one gun for each State now in the Union (32), and that my command be allowed to occupy the quarters assigned them until instructions can be obtained from the War Department.

Very respectfully,

F.C. HUMPHREYS,
Military Storekeeper Ordnance, U.S. Army.

to Colonel JOHN CUNNINGHAM,
Seventeenth Regiment Inf., S.C.M.


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January 1, 1861 - Captain Frederick Humphreys to Captain William Maynadier

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Reports of and correspondence with Ordnance Storekeeper F.C. Humphreys, U.S. Army, in reference to seizure of Charleston Arsenal.

CHARLESTON, S.C.,
January 1, 1861.

What disposition shall I make of the detachment under my command? We are very unpleasantly situated here.

F.C. HUMPHREYS,
U.S. Army.

to Captain WM. MAYNADIER,
Charge of Ordnance Bureau.


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December 30, 1860 - Colonel John Cunningham to Captain Frederick Humphreys

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Reports of and correspondence with Ordnance Storekeeper F.C. Humphreys, U.S. Army, in reference to seizure of Charleston Arsenal.

CHARLESTON,
December 30, 1860-10 1/2 o'clock a.m.

SIR: I herewith demand an immediate surrender of the U.S. Arsenal at this place and under your charge, and a delivery to me of the keys and contents of the arsenals, magazines, &c.

I am already proceeding to occupy it with a strong armed detachment of troops.

I make the demand in the name of the State of South Carolina, and by virtue of an order from its governor, a copy of which is inclosed.

Very respectfully,

JOHN CUNNINGHAM,
Colonel Seventeenth Reg. Inf., S.C.M.

to Captain F.C. HUMPHREYS,
Military Storekeeper Ordnance.


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December 29, 1860 - Governor Francis Pickens to Colonel John Cunningham

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Reports of and correspondence with Ordnance Storekeeper F.C. Humphreys, U.S. Army, in reference to seizure of Charleston Arsenal.

HEADQUARTERS,
CHARLESTON, S.C.,
December 29, 1860.

SIR: In the morning, after reporting yourself to Major-General Schneirle, and informing him of this order, you are directed to get from him a detachment of select men, and in the most discrete and forbearing manner you will proceed to the U.S. Arsenal in Charleston, and there demand in my name, its entire possession, and state distinctly that you do this with a view to prevent any destruction of public property that may occur in the present excited state of the public mind, and also as due to the public safety. You will then proceed to take, in the most systematic manner, a correct inventory of everything in said arsenal, and the exact state of all arms, &c.

You will read this order to Captain Humphreys, who is the United States officer at the arsenal.

I do not apprehend any difficulty in giving up the same, but if refused, then you are to take it, using no more force than may be absolutely necessary, and with the greatest discretion and liberality to Captain Humphreys, who is at perfect liberty to remain in his present quarters as long as it may be agreeable for himself, and he is requested to do so. Report as soon as possible to me.

F.W. PICKENS.

to Colonel JOHN CUNNINGHAM.


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December 30, 1860 - Captain Frederick Humphreys to Colonel John Cunningham

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Reports of and correspondence with Ordnance Storekeeper F.C. Humphreys, U.S. Army, in reference to seizure of Charleston Arsenal.

CHARLESTON ARSENAL, S.C.,
December 30, 1860.

SIR: I am constrained to comply with your demand for the surrender of this arsenal, from the fact that I have no force for its defense. I do so, however, solemnly protesting against the illegality of this measure in the name of my Government.

I also demand, as a right, that I be allowed to salute my flag, before lowering it, with one gun for each State now in the Union (32), and that my command be allowed to occupy the quarters assigned them until instructions can be obtained from the War Department.

Very respectfully,

F.C. HUMPHREYS,
Military Storekeeper Ordnance, U.S. Army.

to Colonel JOHN CUNNINGHAM,
Seventeenth Regiment Inf., S.C.M.


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January 1, 1861 - Captain Frederick Humphreys to Captain William Maynadier

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Reports of and correspondence with Ordnance Storekeeper F.C. Humphreys, U.S. Army, in reference to seizure of Charleston Arsenal.

CHARLESTON, S.C.,
January 1, 1861.

What disposition shall I make of the detachment under my command? We are very unpleasantly situated here.

F.C. HUMPHREYS,
U.S. Army.

to Captain WM. MAYNADIER,
Charge of Ordnance Bureau.


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January 2, 1861 - Captain William Maynadier to Captain Frederick Humphreys

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Reports of and correspondence with Ordnance Storekeeper F.C. Humphreys, U.S. Army, in reference to seizure of Charleston Arsenal.

ORDNANCE OFFICE,
January 2, 1861.

F.C. HUMPHREYS,
U.S. Arsenal, Charleston, S.C.:

I want a report in detail of what has occurred; of the present position and condition of your command and property; as regards quarters and other accommodations, freedom of movement, and any statements or views in the matter that you may deem proper for a full understanding.

WM. MAYNADIER,
Captain of Ordnance.


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January 3, 1861 - Captain Frederick Humphreys to Captain William Maynadier

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Reports of and correspondence with Ordnance Storekeeper F.C. Humphreys, U.S. Army, in reference to seizure of Charleston Arsenal.

CHARLESTON ARSENAL, S.C.,
January 3, 1861.

SIR: I received your dispatch last night and sent a reply by telegraph. I will now proceed to make a detailed report of the facts relative to the surrender of this arsenal, which I should have gone before but that my time has been fully occupied in getting proper vouchers for the property recently in my charge.

On Sunday morning last Colonel Cunningham marched a strong detachment of armed men into this arsenal (having several days before entirely surrounded it outside of the inclosure) and demanded the surrender in the name of South Carolina and by order of Governor Pickens. Having no force to make a defense, I surrendered under a protest, and demanded the privilege of saluting my flag before lowering it and of taking it with me, and that the command should occupy the quarters until instructions could be received from the War Department, which was granted.

Soon after, the arsenal and magazine were both opened, and the property has been constantly issued since-arms, ammunition, accouterments, &c.

Myself and men and our families are very unpleasantly situated. There are some 200 men here constantly, and we are in actual danger from accident when so many inexperienced persons are at every turn with loaded arms. Our movements are watched and restricted, and I would earnestly request that we may be moved elsewhere. The times are so unsettled that I have not issued to my command this month either subsistence or fuel-in fact, we have no conveniences for anything, and all is confusion and turmoil.

I understand that all communication with Fort Sumter is cut, off, and that a barge with its men from that post has been captured at the city wharf and are held in durance.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your most obedient servant,

F.C. HUMPHREYS,
Military Storekeeper Ordnance, U.S. Army.

Captain WM. MAYNADIER,
In charge of Ordnance Bureau, Washington, D.C.


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No. 04

No. 04 - Reports of Charles R. Woods (Lieutenant, 9th United States Infantry)

In these reports, Lieutenant Charles Robert Woods of the 9th United States Regular Infantry details the first expedition for relief of Fort Sumter.

January 12, 1861 - 1st Lieutenant Charles Woods to Colonel Henry Scott

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Reports of Lieutenant Charles R. Woods, Ninth U.S. Infantry, of first expedition for relief of Fort Sumter.

NEW YORK HARBOR,
January 12, 1861.

COLONEL: I have the honor to report that I reached this post at 8 1/2 o'clock this morning with my command, having been unable to reach Fort Sumter. I will make a detailed report without delay.

I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

CHARLES R. WOODS,
First Lieutenant, Ninth Infantry.

Colonel H.L. SCOTT,
A.D.C.


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January 13, 1861 - 1st Lieutenant Charles Woods to Assistant Adjutant-General Lorenzo Thomas

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Reports of Lieutenant Charles R. Woods, Ninth U.S. Infantry, of first expedition for relief of Fort Sumter.

FORT COLUMBUS, N.Y.H.,
January 13, 1861.

COLONEL: Pursuant to instructions, dated Headquarters of the Army, January 5, 1861, I embarked on the evening of Saturday, 5th instant, from Governor's Island, at 6 o'clock p.m., on a steam-tug, which transferred us to the steamer Star of the West.

My command consisted of two hundred men, recruits from the depot, fifty of whom were of the permanent party. My officers were First Lieutenant W.A. Webb, Fifth Infantry; Second Lieutenant C.W. Thomas, First Infantry, and Assist. Surg. P.G.S. Ten Broeck, Medical Department.

On Tuesday afternoon, 8th instant, arms and ammunition were issued to all the men. About midnight same evening we arrived off Charleston Harbor, and remained groping in the dark until nearly day, when we discovered the light on Fort Sumter, which told us where we were. The other coast light marking the approaches to the harbor had been extinguished, and the outer buoy marking the channel across the bar gone.

During the night we saw what we supposed to be the light of a steamer cruising off the harbor, but she did not discover us, as our lights were all out. Just before day we discovered a steamer lying off the main ship channel. As soon as they made us out they burned one blue light and two red lights, and, receiving no response from us, immediately steamed up the channel. As soon as we had light enough we crossed the bar, and steamed up the main ship channel. This was on the first of the ebb tide, the steamer ahead of us firing rockets and burning lights as she went up. We proceeded without interruption until we arrived within one and three-quarter miles of Forts Sumter and Moultrie-they being apparently equidistant-when we were opened on by a masked battery near the north end of Morris Island. This battery was about five-eighths of a mile distant from us, and we were keeping as near into it as we could, to avoid the fire of Fort Moultrie. Before we were fired upon we had discovered a red palmetto flag flying, but could see nothing to indicate that there was a battery there.

We went into the harbor with the American ensign hoisted on the flag-staff, and as soon as the first shot was fired a full-sized garrison flag was displayed at our fore, but the one was no more respected than the other. We kept on, still under the fire of the battery, most of the balls passing over us, one just missing the machinery, another striking but a few feet from the rudder, while a ricochet shot struck us in the force-chains, about two feet above the water line, and just below where the man was throwing the lead. The American flag was flying at Fort Sumter, but we saw no flag at Fort Moultrie, and there were no guns fired from either of these fortifications.

Finding it impossible to take my command to Fort Sumter, I was obliged most reluctantly to turn about, and try to make my way out of the harbor before my retreat should be cut off by vessels then in sight, supposed to be the cutter Aiken, coming down the channel in tow of a steamer, with the evident purpose of cutting us off. A brisk fire was kept up on us by the battery as long as we remained within range, but, fortunately, without damage to us, and we succeeded in recrossing the bar in safety, the steamer touching two or three times. Our course was now laid for New York Harbor, and we were followed for some hours by a steamer from Charleston for the purpose of watching us.

During the whole trip downward the troops were kept out of sight whenever a vessel came near enough to us to distinguish them, and the morning we entered the harbor of Charleston they were sent down before daylight, and kept there until after we got out of the harbor again. From the preparations that had been made for us I have every reason to believe the Charlestonians were perfectly aware of our coming.

We arrived in New York Harbor on the morning of the 12th instant, and disembarked at 8 o'clock this morning, the 13th, by orders from Headquarters of the Army.

The conduct of the officers and men under my command during the whole trip, and particularly while under fire, was unexceptionable. Captain John McGowan, commanding the steamer Star of the West, deserves the highest praise for the energy, perseverance, and ability displayed in trying to carry out his orders to put the troops in Fort Sumter. He was ably assisted by Mr. Walter Brewer, the New York pilot taken from this place.

I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

CHAS. R. WOODS,
First Lieutenant, Ninth Infantry, Commanding.

Colonel L. THOMAS,
Assistant Adjutant-General, U.S.A., Washington, D.C.


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No. 05

No. 05 - Report of George V. Fox (United States Agent)

In this report, U.S. Agent George V. Fox details the second expedition for relief of Fort Sumter.

April 19, 1861 - U.S. Agent George Fox to Secretary of War Simon Cameron

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Report of Captain George V. Fox, U.S. agent, of second expedition for the relief of Fort Sumter.

STEAMER BALTIC,
New York,
April 19, 1861.

SIR: I sailed from New York in this vessel Tuesday morning, the 10th instant, having dispatched one steam-tug, the Uncle Ben, the evening previous to rendezvous off Charleston. The Yankee, another chartered tug, followed us to the Hook, and I left instructions to send on the Freeborn.

We arrived off Charleston the 12th instant, at 3 a.m., and found only the Harriet Lane. Weather during the whole time a gale. At 7 a.m. the Pawnee arrived, and, according to his orders, Captain Rowan anchored twelve miles east of the light, to await the arrival of the Powhatan]]. I stood in with the Baltic to execute my orders by offering, in the first place, to carry provisions to Fort Sumter. Nearing the bar it was observed that was had commenced, and, therefore, the peaceful offer of provisions was void.

The Pawnee and Lane immediately anchored close to the bar, notwithstanding the heavy sea, and though neither tugs or Powhatan or Pocahontas had arrived, it was believed a couple of boats of provisions might be got in. The attempt was to be made in the morning, because the heavy sea and absence of the Powhatan's gunboats crippled the night movement. All night and the morning of the 13th instant it blew strong, with a heavy sea. The Baltic stood off and on, looking for the Powhatan, and in running in during the thick weather struck on Rattlesnake Shoal, but soon got off. The heavy sea, and not having the sailors (three hundred) asked for, rendered any attempt from the Baltic absurd. I only felt anxious to get in a few days' provisions to last the fort until the Powhatan's arrival. The Pawnee and Lane were both short of men, and were only intended to afford a base of operations whilst the tugs and three hundred sailors fought their way in.

However, the Powhatan and tugs not coming, Captain Rowan seized an ice schooner and offered her to me, which I accepted, and Lieutenant Hudson, of the Army, several Navy officers, and plenty of volunteers agreed to man the vessel, and go in with me the night of the 13th. The events of that day, so glorious to Major Anderson and his command, are known to you. As I anticipated the guns from Sumter dispersed their naval preparations excepting small guard-boats, so that with the Powhatan a re-enforcement would have been easy. The Government did not anticipate that the fort was so badly constructed as the event has shown.

I learned on the 13th instant that the Powhatan was withdrawn from duty off Charleston on the 7th instant, yet I was permitted to sail on the 9th, the Pawnee on the 9th, and the Pocahontas on the 10th, without intimation that the main portion-the fighting portion-of our expedition was taken away. In justice to itself as well as an acknowledgment of my earnest efforts, I trust the Government has sufficient reasons for putting me in the position they have placed me.

I have the honor to be, your obedient servant,

G.V. FOX.

The Baltic has been chartered for one month.

Honorable SIMON CAMERON,
Secretary of War, Washington.


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No. 06

No. 6 - Reports of Robert Anderson (Major, 1st United States Artillery) (See also "Correspondence and Orders")

In these reports, Major Robert Anderson of the 1st United States Artillery garrison details the bombardment and evacuation of Fort Sumter.

April 18, 1861 - Major Robert Anderson to Secretary of War Simon Cameron

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Reports of Major Robert Anderson, 1st U.S. Artillery, of the bombardment and evacuation of Fort Sumter

STEAMSHIP BALTIC, OFF SANDY HOOK,
April 18, [1861]-10.30 a.m.-via New York.

Having defended Fort Sumter for thirty-four hours, until the quarters were entirely burned, the main gates destroyed by fire, the gorge walls seriously injured, the magazine surrounded by flames, and its door closed from the effects of heat, four barrels and three cartridges of powder only being available, and no provisions remaining but pork, I accepted terms of evacuation offered by General Beauregard, being the same offered by him on the 11th instant, prior to the commencement of hostilities, and marched out of the fort Sunday afternoon, the 14th instant, with colors flying and drums beating, bringing away company and private property, and saluting my flag with fifty guns.

ROBERT ANDERSON,
Major, First Artillery, Commanding.

to Honorable S. CAMERON,
Secretary of War, Washington.

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April 19, 1861 - Major Robert Anderson to Secretary of War Simon Cameron

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Reports of Major Robert Anderson, 1st U.S. Artillery, of the bombardment and evacuation of Fort Sumter.

NEW YORK,
April 19, 1861.

COLONEL: I have the honor to send herewith dispatches Nos. 99 and 100,[2] written at but not mailed in Fort Sumter, and to state that I shall, at as early a date as possible, forward a detailed reports of the operations in the harbor of Charleston, S. C., in which my command bore a part on the 12th and 13th instant, ending with the evacuation of Fort Sumter, and the withdrawal, with the honors of war, of my garrison on the 14th instant from that harbor, after having sustained for thirty-four hours the fire from seventeen 10-inch mortars and from batteries of heavy guns, well placed and well served, by the forces under the command of Brigadier-General Beauregard. Fort Sumter is left in ruins from the effect of the shell and shot from his batteries, and officers of his army reported that our firing had destroyed most of the buildings inside Fort Moultrie. God was pleased to guard my little force from the shell and shot which were thrown into and against my work, and to Him are our thanks due that I am enabled to report that no one was seriously injured by their fire. I regret that I have to add that, in consequence of some unaccountable misfortune, one man was killed, two seriously and three slightly wounded whilst saluting our flag as it was lowered.

The officers and men of my command acquitted themselves in a manner which entitles them to the thanks and gratitude of their country, and I feel that I ought not to close this preliminary report without saying that I think it would be injustice to order them on duty of any kind for some months, as both officers and men need rest and the recreation of a garrison life to give them an opportunity to recover from the effects of the hardships of their three months' confinement within the walls of Fort Sumter.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

ROBERT ANDERSON,
Major, First Regiment Artillery, &c.

P.S. - I inclose herewith copies of the correspondence between General Beauregard and myself.

R.A.

to Colonel L. THOMAS,
Adjutant-General, Washington, D.C.

[Inclosures.]

April 11, 1861 - Brigadier General G.T. Beauregard to Major Robert Anderson

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Reports of Major Robert Anderson, 1st U.S. Artillery, of the bombardment and evacuation of Fort Sumter.

1.]

HEADQUARTERS PROVISIONAL ARMY, C.S.A.,
Charleston, S.C.,
April 11, 1861.

SIR: The Government of the Confederate States has hitherto forborne from any hostile demonstration against Fort Sumter, in the hope that the Government of the United States, with a view to the amicable adjustment of all questions between the two Governments, and to avert the calamities of war, would voluntarily evacuate it.

There was reason at one time to believe that such would be the course pursued by the Government of the United States, and under that impression my Government has refrained from making any demand for the surrender of the fort. But the Confederate States can no longer delay assuming actual possession of a fortification commanding the entrance of one of their harbors, and necessary to its defense and security. I am ordered by the Government of the Confederate States to demand the evacuation of Fort Sumter. My aides, Colonel Chesnut and Captain Lee, are authorized to make such demand of you. All proper facilities will be afforded for the removal of yourself and command, together with company arms and property and all private property, to any post in the United States which you may select. The flag which you have upheld so long as with so much fortitude, under the most trying circumstances, may be saluted by you on taking it down.

Colonel Chesnut and Captain Lee will, for a reasonable time, await your answer.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G.T. BEAUREGARD,
Brigadier-General, Commanding.

to Major ROBERT ANDERSON,
Commanding at Fort Sumter, Charleston Harbor, S.C.

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April 11, 1861 - Major Robert Anderson to Brigadier General G.T. Beauregard

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Reports of Major Robert Anderson, 1st U.S. Artillery, of the bombardment and evacuation of Fort Sumter.

2.]

FORT SUMTER, S.C.,
April 11, 1861.

GENERAL: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication demanding the evacuation of this fort, and to say, in reply thereto, that it is a demand with which I regret that my sense of honor, and of my obligations to my Government, prevent my compliance. Thanking you for the fair, manly, and courteous terms proposed, and for the high compliment paid me,

I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

ROBERT ANDERSON,
Major, First Artillery, Commanding.

to Brigadier General BEAUREGARD,
Commanding Provisional Army.

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April 11, 1861 - Brigadier General G.T. Beauregard to Major Robert Anderson

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Reports of Major Robert Anderson, 1st U.S. Artillery, of the bombardment and evacuation of Fort Sumter.

3.]

HEADQUARTERS PROVISIONAL ARMY, C.S.A.,
Charleston, S.C.,
April 11, 1861.

MAJOR: In consequence of the verbal observation made by you to my aides, Messrs. Chesnut and Lee, in relation to the condition of your supplies, and that you would in a few days be starved out if our guns did not batter you to pieces, or words to that effect, and desiring no useless effusion of blood, I communicated both the verbal observations and your written answer to my communications to my Government.

If you will state the time at which you will evacuate Fort Sumter, and agree that in the mean time you will not use your guns against us unless ours shall be employed against Fort Sumter, we will abstain from opening fire upon you. Colonel Chesnut and Captain Lee are authorized by me to enter into such an agreement with you. You are, therefore, requested to communicate to them an open answer.

I remain, major, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G.T. BEAUREGARD,
Brigadier-General, Commanding.

to Major ROBERT ANDERSON,
Commanding Fort Sumter, Charleston Harbor, S.C.

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April 11, 1861 - Major Robert Anderson to Brigadier General G.T. Beauregard

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Reports of Major Robert Anderson, 1st U.S. Artillery, of the bombardment and evacuation of Fort Sumter.

4.]

FORT SUMTER, S.C.,
April 12, 1861.

GENERAL: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt by Colonel Chesnut of your second communication of the 11th instant, and to state in reply that, cordially uniting with you in the desire to avoid the useless effusion of blood, I will, if provided with the proper and necessary means of transportation, evacuate Fort Sumter by noon on the 15th instant, and that I will not in the mean time open my fires upon your forces unless compelled to do so by some hostile act against this fort or the flag of my Government by the forces under your command, or by some portion of them, or by the perpetration of some act showing a hostile intention on your part against this fort or the flag it bears, should I not receive prior to that time controlling instructions from my Government or additional supplies.

I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

ROBERT ANDERSON,
Major, First Artillery, Commanding.

to Brigadier General BEAUREGARD,
Commanding.

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April 12, 1861 - Colonel James Chesnut / Captain Stephen Lee to Major Robert Anderson

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Reports of Major Robert Anderson, 1st U.S. Artillery, of the bombardment and evacuation of Fort Sumter.

5.]

FORT SUMTER, S.C.,
April 12, 1861-3.20 a.m.

SIR: By authority of Brigadier-General Beauregard, commanding the Provisional Forces of the Confederate States, we have the honor to notify you that he will open the fire of his batteries on Fort Sumter in one hour from this time.

We have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JAMES CHESNUT, JR.,
Aide-de-Camp.

STEPHEN D. LEE,
Captain, C.S. Army, Aide-de-Camp.

to Major ROBERT ANDERSON,
U.S. Army, Commanding Fort Sumter.

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April 13, 1861 - Major Robert Anderson to Brigadier General G.T. Beauregard

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Reports of Major Robert Anderson, 1st U.S. Artillery, of the bombardment and evacuation of Fort Sumter.

6.]

FORT SUMTER, S.C.,
April 13, 1861-20 min. past 2 o'clock.

GENERAL: I thank you for your kindness in having sent your aide to me with an offer of assistance upon your having observed that our flag was down it being down a few moments, and merely long enough to enable us to replace it on another staff. Your aides will inform you of the circumstance of the visit to my fort by General Wigfall, who said that he came with a message from yourself.

In the peculiar circumstances in which I am now placed in consequence of that message, and of my reply thereto, I will now state that I am willing to evacuate this fort upon the terms and conditions offered by yourself on the 11th instant, at any hour you may name to-morrow, or as soon as we can arrange means of transportation. I will not replace my flag until the return of your messenger.

I have the honor to remain, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

ROBERT ANDERSON,
Major, First Artillery, Commanding.

to Brigadier General G.T. BEAUREGARD,
Charleston, S.C.

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April 13, 1861 - Brigadier General G.T. Beauregard to Major Robert Anderson

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Reports of Major Robert Anderson, 1st U.S. Artillery, of the bombardment and evacuation of Fort Sumter.

7.]

HEADQUARTERS PROVISIONAL ARMY, C.S.A.,
April 13, 1861-5 min. to 6 o'clock p.m.

SIR: On being informed that you were in distress, caused by a conflagration in Fort Sumter, I immediately dispatched my aides, Colonels Miles and Pryor, and Captain Lee, to offer you any assistance in my power to give.

Learning a few moments afterwards that a white flag was waving on your ramparts, I sent two others of my aides, Colonel Allston and Major Jones, to offer you the following terms of evacuation: All proper facilities for the removal of yourself and command, together with company arms and private property, to any point within the United States you may select.

Apprised that you desire the privilege of saluting your flag on retiring, I cheerfully concede it, in consideration of the gallantry with which you have defended the place under your charge.

The Catawba steamer will be at the landing of Sumter to-morrow morning at any hour you may designate for the purpose of transporting you whither you may desire.

I remain, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G.T. BEAUREGARD,
Brigadier-General, Commanding.

[to Major R. ANDERSON,
First Artillery, Commanding Fort Sumter, S.C.]

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April 13, 1861 - Major Robert Anderson to Brigadier General G.T. Beauregard

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Reports of Major Robert Anderson, 1st U.S. Artillery, of the bombardment and evacuation of Fort Sumter.

8.]

HEADQUARTERS, FORT SUMTER, S.C.,
April 13, 1861-7.50 p.m.

GENERAL: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of this evening, and to express my gratification at its contents. Should it be convenient, I would like to have the Catawba here at about nine o'clock to-morrow morning.

With sentiments of the highest regard and esteem, I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

ROBERT ANDERSON,
Major, U.S. Army, Commanding.

to Brigadier General G.T. BEAUREGARD,
Commanding Provisional Army, C.S.

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April 13, 1861 - Adjutant William Whiting to Major Robert Anderson

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Reports of Major Robert Anderson, 1st U.S. Artillery, of the bombardment and evacuation of Fort Sumter

9.]

HEADQUARTERS PROVISIONAL FORCES, C.S.A.,
Charleston, April 15, 1861.

The commanding general directs that the commanding officer of the garrison of Fort Sumter will bury the unfortunate soldier who has been accidentally killed by explosion of misplaced powder while saluting his flag. He will be buried with all the honors of war in the parade of the fort.

By order of Brigadier-General Beauregard:

W.H.C. WHITING,
Adjutant and Engineer General.

Copy furnished to-

Major ROBERT ANDERSON,
U.S., First Regiment of Artillery.

P.S. - The wounded will receive the best attention, and will be placed in the State hospital.

By order of General Beauregard:

W.H.C. WHITING,
Adjutant and Engineer General.

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  1. No record of this transaction found in the files of the Department; but the demand and refusal were published about the same time stated, and that demand is referred to in Foster to Totten (January 12, 1861), and in Holt to Hayne (February 6, 1861)
  2. See also April 10 and April 11, "Correspondence and Orders"



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April 11, 1861 - Brigadier General G.T. Beauregard to Major Robert Anderson

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Reports of Major Robert Anderson, 1st U.S. Artillery, of the bombardment and evacuation of Fort Sumter.

1.]

HEADQUARTERS PROVISIONAL ARMY, C.S.A.,
Charleston, S.C.,
April 11, 1861.

SIR: The Government of the Confederate States has hitherto forborne from any hostile demonstration against Fort Sumter, in the hope that the Government of the United States, with a view to the amicable adjustment of all questions between the two Governments, and to avert the calamities of war, would voluntarily evacuate it.

There was reason at one time to believe that such would be the course pursued by the Government of the United States, and under that impression my Government has refrained from making any demand for the surrender of the fort. But the Confederate States can no longer delay assuming actual possession of a fortification commanding the entrance of one of their harbors, and necessary to its defense and security. I am ordered by the Government of the Confederate States to demand the evacuation of Fort Sumter. My aides, Colonel Chesnut and Captain Lee, are authorized to make such demand of you. All proper facilities will be afforded for the removal of yourself and command, together with company arms and property and all private property, to any post in the United States which you may select. The flag which you have upheld so long as with so much fortitude, under the most trying circumstances, may be saluted by you on taking it down.

Colonel Chesnut and Captain Lee will, for a reasonable time, await your answer.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G.T. BEAUREGARD,
Brigadier-General, Commanding.

to Major ROBERT ANDERSON,
Commanding at Fort Sumter, Charleston Harbor, S.C.

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April 11, 1861 - Major Robert Anderson to Brigadier General G.T. Beauregard

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Reports of Major Robert Anderson, 1st U.S. Artillery, of the bombardment and evacuation of Fort Sumter.

2.]

FORT SUMTER, S.C.,
April 11, 1861.

GENERAL: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication demanding the evacuation of this fort, and to say, in reply thereto, that it is a demand with which I regret that my sense of honor, and of my obligations to my Government, prevent my compliance. Thanking you for the fair, manly, and courteous terms proposed, and for the high compliment paid me,

I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

ROBERT ANDERSON,
Major, First Artillery, Commanding.

to Brigadier General BEAUREGARD,
Commanding Provisional Army.

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April 11, 1861 - Brigadier General G.T. Beauregard to Major Robert Anderson

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Reports of Major Robert Anderson, 1st U.S. Artillery, of the bombardment and evacuation of Fort Sumter.

3.]

HEADQUARTERS PROVISIONAL ARMY, C.S.A.,
Charleston, S.C.,
April 11, 1861.

MAJOR: In consequence of the verbal observation made by you to my aides, Messrs. Chesnut and Lee, in relation to the condition of your supplies, and that you would in a few days be starved out if our guns did not batter you to pieces, or words to that effect, and desiring no useless effusion of blood, I communicated both the verbal observations and your written answer to my communications to my Government.

If you will state the time at which you will evacuate Fort Sumter, and agree that in the mean time you will not use your guns against us unless ours shall be employed against Fort Sumter, we will abstain from opening fire upon you. Colonel Chesnut and Captain Lee are authorized by me to enter into such an agreement with you. You are, therefore, requested to communicate to them an open answer.

I remain, major, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G.T. BEAUREGARD,
Brigadier-General, Commanding.

to Major ROBERT ANDERSON,
Commanding Fort Sumter, Charleston Harbor, S.C.

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April 11, 1861 - Major Robert Anderson to Brigadier General G.T. Beauregard

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Reports of Major Robert Anderson, 1st U.S. Artillery, of the bombardment and evacuation of Fort Sumter.

4.]

FORT SUMTER, S.C.,
April 12, 1861.

GENERAL: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt by Colonel Chesnut of your second communication of the 11th instant, and to state in reply that, cordially uniting with you in the desire to avoid the useless effusion of blood, I will, if provided with the proper and necessary means of transportation, evacuate Fort Sumter by noon on the 15th instant, and that I will not in the mean time open my fires upon your forces unless compelled to do so by some hostile act against this fort or the flag of my Government by the forces under your command, or by some portion of them, or by the perpetration of some act showing a hostile intention on your part against this fort or the flag it bears, should I not receive prior to that time controlling instructions from my Government or additional supplies.

I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

ROBERT ANDERSON,
Major, First Artillery, Commanding.

to Brigadier General BEAUREGARD,
Commanding.

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April 12, 1861 - Colonel James Chesnut / Captain Stephen Lee to Major Robert Anderson

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Reports of Major Robert Anderson, 1st U.S. Artillery, of the bombardment and evacuation of Fort Sumter.

5.]

FORT SUMTER, S.C.,
April 12, 1861-3.20 a.m.

SIR: By authority of Brigadier-General Beauregard, commanding the Provisional Forces of the Confederate States, we have the honor to notify you that he will open the fire of his batteries on Fort Sumter in one hour from this time.

We have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JAMES CHESNUT, JR.,
Aide-de-Camp.

STEPHEN D. LEE,
Captain, C.S. Army, Aide-de-Camp.

to Major ROBERT ANDERSON,
U.S. Army, Commanding Fort Sumter.

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April 13, 1861 - Major Robert Anderson to Brigadier General G.T. Beauregard

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Reports of Major Robert Anderson, 1st U.S. Artillery, of the bombardment and evacuation of Fort Sumter.

6.]

FORT SUMTER, S.C.,
April 13, 1861-20 min. past 2 o'clock.

GENERAL: I thank you for your kindness in having sent your aide to me with an offer of assistance upon your having observed that our flag was down it being down a few moments, and merely long enough to enable us to replace it on another staff. Your aides will inform you of the circumstance of the visit to my fort by General Wigfall, who said that he came with a message from yourself.

In the peculiar circumstances in which I am now placed in consequence of that message, and of my reply thereto, I will now state that I am willing to evacuate this fort upon the terms and conditions offered by yourself on the 11th instant, at any hour you may name to-morrow, or as soon as we can arrange means of transportation. I will not replace my flag until the return of your messenger.

I have the honor to remain, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

ROBERT ANDERSON,
Major, First Artillery, Commanding.

to Brigadier General G.T. BEAUREGARD,
Charleston, S.C.

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April 13, 1861 - Brigadier General G.T. Beauregard to Major Robert Anderson

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Reports of Major Robert Anderson, 1st U.S. Artillery, of the bombardment and evacuation of Fort Sumter.

7.]

HEADQUARTERS PROVISIONAL ARMY, C.S.A.,
April 13, 1861-5 min. to 6 o'clock p.m.

SIR: On being informed that you were in distress, caused by a conflagration in Fort Sumter, I immediately dispatched my aides, Colonels Miles and Pryor, and Captain Lee, to offer you any assistance in my power to give.

Learning a few moments afterwards that a white flag was waving on your ramparts, I sent two others of my aides, Colonel Allston and Major Jones, to offer you the following terms of evacuation: All proper facilities for the removal of yourself and command, together with company arms and private property, to any point within the United States you may select.

Apprised that you desire the privilege of saluting your flag on retiring, I cheerfully concede it, in consideration of the gallantry with which you have defended the place under your charge.

The Catawba steamer will be at the landing of Sumter to-morrow morning at any hour you may designate for the purpose of transporting you whither you may desire.

I remain, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G.T. BEAUREGARD,
Brigadier-General, Commanding.

[to Major R. ANDERSON,
First Artillery, Commanding Fort Sumter, S.C.]

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April 13, 1861 - Major Robert Anderson to Brigadier General G.T. Beauregard

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Reports of Major Robert Anderson, 1st U.S. Artillery, of the bombardment and evacuation of Fort Sumter.

8.]

HEADQUARTERS, FORT SUMTER, S.C.,
April 13, 1861-7.50 p.m.

GENERAL: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of this evening, and to express my gratification at its contents. Should it be convenient, I would like to have the Catawba here at about nine o'clock to-morrow morning.

With sentiments of the highest regard and esteem, I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

ROBERT ANDERSON,
Major, U.S. Army, Commanding.

to Brigadier General G.T. BEAUREGARD,
Commanding Provisional Army, C.S.

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April 13, 1861 - Adjutant William Whiting to Major Robert Anderson

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Reports of Major Robert Anderson, 1st U.S. Artillery, of the bombardment and evacuation of Fort Sumter

9.]

HEADQUARTERS PROVISIONAL FORCES, C.S.A.,
Charleston, April 15, 1861.

The commanding general directs that the commanding officer of the garrison of Fort Sumter will bury the unfortunate soldier who has been accidentally killed by explosion of misplaced powder while saluting his flag. He will be buried with all the honors of war in the parade of the fort.

By order of Brigadier-General Beauregard:

W.H.C. WHITING,
Adjutant and Engineer General.

Copy furnished to-

Major ROBERT ANDERSON,
U.S., First Regiment of Artillery.

P.S. - The wounded will receive the best attention, and will be placed in the State hospital.

By order of General Beauregard:

W.H.C. WHITING,
Adjutant and Engineer General.

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April 20, 1861 - Secretary of War Simon Cameron to Major Robert Anderson

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Reports of Major Robert Anderson, 1st U.S. Artillery, of the bombardment and evacuation of Fort Sumter.

WAR DEPARTMENT,
Washington, April 20, 1861.

Major ROBERT ANDERSON,
Late Commanding at Fort Sumter.

MY DEAR SIR: I am directed by the President of the United States to communicate to you, and through you to the officers and the men under your command, at Forts Moultrie and Sumter, the approbation of the Government of your and their judicious and gallant conduct there, and to tender to you and them the thanks of the Government for the same.

I am, sir, very respectfully,

SIMON CAMERON,
Secretary of War.

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No. 07

No. 7 - Report of John G. Foster (Captain, U.S. Corps of Engineers) (See also "Correspondence and Orders")

This report in an engineering journal kept by John Gray Foster, Captain of the U.S. Corps of Engineers, details the bombardment of Fort Sumter.

October 1, 1861 - Captain John Foster

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Engineer journal of the bombardment of Fort Sumter. By Captain J. G. Foster, Corps of Engineers, U. S. Army

NEW YORK,
October 1, 1861.

April 9, 1861 - The four-gun battery on the upper end of Sullivan's Island that was unmasked yesterday morning by blowing up the wooden house standing in front of it was situated very nearly upon the prolongation of the capital of this fort, and, therefore, could enfilade the terre-pleins of both flanks of the work, as well as sweep, to a certain extent, the outside of the scarp wall of the left flank, where alone a vessel of any considerable draught of water could lie near to the fort and discharge her cargo. It therefore became a matter of importance to provide traverses to intercept the fire along the barbette tier of the right flank, as this contains the heaviest battery, intended to operate both upon Fort Moultrie and Cummings Point, and also to prepare means for quickly unloading any vessel that may run in alongside the left flank with supplies for the garrison.

For the first purpose I commenced to prepare (for want of sand bags) a large double curb of boards and scantling, to be elevated upon the top of the parapet at the right shoulder angle, and being filled with earth hoisted from the parade, to serve for a traverse to protect this flank.

For the second I prepared ladders and runways to take in re-enforcements and provisions at the embrasures rapidly, one embrasure being enlarged so as to admit barrels, and also cleared the passage around to that main gate. A large stone traverse was also commenced to cover the main gates from the fire from Cummings Point. The masons were put at work cutting openings through the walls of the officers' quarters so as to admit a free communication through them, on the first and second floors, from one flank to the other. The battery in the right should angle, first tier, was also being improved by substituting a 42-pounder for a 32-pounder, cutting into the magazine wall, so as to allow the gun on the george to be used against the batteries, and cutting any one side of the embrasure, so as to allow the first gun on the right flank to be used in the same way.

The quantity of bread became very small, and only half rations of it were allowed to the men. The enemy's steamers were very active carrying supplies to their batteries.

April 10. - Every one, by order of the commanding officer, Major Anderson, changed his quarters, into the gun casemates to-day. The work on the traverse progressed well. Lieutenant R. K. Meade, Engineers, being placed on ordnance duty, found the supply of cartridges on hand to be too small, and took immediate measures to increase the supply by cutting up all the surplus blankets and extra company clothing to make cartridge bags. The curb for the traverse at the right shoulder angle was completed and put together on the terre-plein at nightfall, and after dark raised up on the parapet and filled with earth, which had been hoisted from the parade. The working party, under Lieutenant Snyder, increased by a large detail from the command, completed this work about midnight.

The supply of bread failed to-day, and its absence was supplied by rice obtained by picking over some damaged rice, which, while spread out to dry in one of the quarters, had been filled with pieces of glass from the window-panes shattered by the concussion of guns fired in practice.

A second battery was unmasked to-day on Sullivan's Island, nearer the western point of the island than the one last discovered. It is of one gun, and very heavy-evidently a 9-inch Dahlgren gun, or a 10-inch columbiad.

The enemy's steamers were very active at night, but no alarm occurred.

April 11. - At early dawn I detected the presence of the floating battery on the upper end of Sullivan's Island. It is situated between the end of the jetty and the steamboat wharf, where, evidently distrusting her qualities as a floating battery intended to breach the gorge wall at short range, she has been run on shore at high water, and, being left by the receding tide, has become a fixed battery. Her position gives her the advantage of sweeping with her guns the whole of the left flank of the fort, and thus rendering it impossible for any vessel with supplies to lie anywhere along this flank, while the breakwater in front protects her from our ricochet shots.

The stone traverse at the gorge has been raised to-day high enough to protect the main gate, and the traverse on the top of the parapet has been strengthened by the addition of sand bags on the top and sides, and braced in the rear by extra gun carriages. The communications cut through the walls of the quarters are finished, and all the water pipes and faucets prepared for use in case of fire. The third splinter proof shelter on the right flank, barbette tier, is finished. These shelters are formed of the timbers of extra gun carriages inclined against the interior slope and covered with 2 inch embrasure irons, securely spiked down. Shot and shells have been distributed to the guns, and about 700 cartridges reported ready. The work of making cartridge bags is slow, owing to there being only six needles in the fort.

The enemy's steamers are very active carrying supplies and hospital stores to the batteries on Cummings Point.

At 4 p.m. three aides of General Beauregard (Colonel Chesnut, Colonel Chisolm, and Captain Lee) came as bearers of a demand for the surrender of the fort. The unanimous decision of the officers in council was in the negative, and a written answer, in accordance, was returned by Major Anderson.

April 12. - At 1 a.m. four aides of General Beauregard (Colonel Chesnut, Colonel Chisolm, Captain Lee, and Mr. Pryor, of Virginia) came with a second letter, stating that as Major Anderson had been understood to make the remark to the bearers of the first letter, in taking leave, that he would "await the first shot, and if not battered to pieces, would be starved out in a few days," it was desired to know what importance might be attached to it. The reply of Major Anderson did not satisfy the aides, who were authorized in that case to give notice that the fire would open. Accordingly, leaving at 3 1/2 a.m., they gave notice that their batteries would open in one hour.

At 4 1/2 a.m. a signal shell was thrown from the mortar battery on James Island; after which the fire soon became general from all the hostile batteries. These batteries were, as nearly as could be ascertained, armed as follows, viz:

On Morris Island: Breaching battery Numbers 1, two 42-pounders; one 12-pounder Blakely rifled gun. Mortar battery (next to Numbers 7), four 10-inch mortars. Breaching battery Numbers 2 (iron-clad battery), three 8-inch columbiads. Mortar battery (next to Numbers 2), three 10-inch mortars.

On James Island: Battery at Fort Johnson, three 24-pounders (only one of them bearing on Fort Sumter). Mortar battery south of Fort Johnson, four 10-inch mortars.

On Sullivan's Island: Iron-clad (floating) battery, four 42-pounders. Columbiad battery Numbers 1, one 9-inch Dahlgren gun. Columbiad battery Numbers 2, 8-inch columbiads. Mortar battery west of fort Moultrie, three 10-inch mortars. Mortar battery on parade, in rear of Fort Moultrie, two 10-inch mortars. Fort Moultrie, three 8-inch columbiads; two 8-inch columbiads; two 8-inch sea-coast howitzers; five 32-pounders; four 24-pounders. At Mount Pleasant, one 10-inch mortar.

Total, firing on Fort Sumter, 30 gun, 17 mortars.

At 7 a.m. the guns of Fort Sumter replied, the first shot being fired from the battery at the right gorge angle, in charge of Captain Doubleday. All the officers and soldiers of Major Anderson's command were divided into three reliefs, of two hours each, for the service of the guns, Lieutenants Snyder and Meade, of the Engineers, taking their turns with the other officers in the large of batteries.

Of the forty-three workmen constituting the Engineer force in the fort nearly all volunteered to serve as cannoneers, or to carry shot and cartridge to the guns.

The armament of the fort was as follows, viz:

Barbette tier: Right flank, one 10-inch columbiad, four 8-inch columbiads, four 42-pounders. Right face, none. Left face, three 8-inch sea-coast howitzers, one 32-pounder. Left flank, one 10-inch columbiad, two 8-inch columbiads, two 42-pounders. Gorge, one 8-inch sea-coast howitzer, two 32-pounders, six 24-pounders. Total in barbette, 27 guns.

Casemate tier: Right flank, one 42-pounder, four 32-pounders. Right face, three 42-pounders. Left face, ten 32-pounders. Left flank, five 32-pounders. Gorge, two 32-pounders. Total in casemate, 21 guns. Total available in both tiers, 48 guns.

Besides the above, there were arranged on the parade, to serve as mortars, one 10-inch columbiad to throw shells into Charleston and four 8-inch columbiads to throw shells into the batteries on Cummings Point. The casemate guns were the only ones used. Of these, those that bore on Cummings Point were the 42-pounder in the pan-coupe of the right gorge angle, the 32-pounder next to it on the gorge, which, by cutting into the brick wall, had been made to traverse sufficiently, and the 32-pounder next the angle on the right flank, which, by cutting away the side of the embrasure, had been made to bear on a portion of the Point, although not on the breaching batteries.

The guns of the first tier, that bore on Fort Johnson, were four 32-pounders on the left flank. (Of these, one embrasure had been, by order, bricked up.)

The guns that bore on the three batteries on the west end of Sullivan's Island were ten 32-pounders, situated on the left face, and one at the pan-coupe of the salient angle (four embrasures being bricked up).

The guns bearing on Fort Moultrie were two 42-pounders, situated on the right face, and one at the pan-coupe of the right shoulder angle.

The supply of cartridges, 700 in number, with which the engagement commenced, became so much reduced by the middle of the day, although the six needles in the fort were kept steadily employed, that the firing was forced to slacken, and to be confined to six guns-two if ring towards Morris Island, two towards Fort Moultrie, and two towards the batteries on the west end of Sullivan's Island.

At 1 o'clock two United States men-of-war were seen off the bar, and soon after a third appeared. The fire of our batteries continued steadily until dark. The effect of the fire was not very good, owing to the insufficient caliber of the guns for the long range, and not much damage appeared to be done to any of the batteries, except those of Fort Moultrie, where our two 42-pounders appeared to have silenced one gun for a time, to have injured the embrasures considerably, riddled the barracks and quarters, and torn three holes through their flag. The so-called floating battery was struck very frequently by our shot, one of them penetrating at the angle between the front and roof, entirely through the iron covering and woodwork beneath, and wounding one man. The rest of the 32-pounder balls failed to penetrate the front or the roof, but were deflected from their surfaces, which were arranged at a suitable angle for this purpose. We could not strike below the water line on account of the sea wall behind which the battery had been grounded, and which was just high enough to allow their guns to fire over it, and to intercept all of our ricochet shots.

The columbiad battery and Dahlgren battery near the floating battery did not appear to be much injured by the few shot that were fired at them. Only one or two shots were fired at Fort Johnson, and none at Castle Pinckney or the city.

Our fire towards Morris Island was mainly directed at the iron-clad battery, but the small caliber of our shot failed to penetrate to covering, when struck fairly. The aim was, therefore, taken at the embrasures, which were struck at least twice, disabling the guns for a time. One or two shots were thrown at the reverse of batteries 3 and 4, scattering some groups of officers and men on the lookout, and cutting down a small flagstaff on one of the batteries. At one time during the day a revenue schooner which had been seized by the insurgents was observed lying at anchor between Sullivan's Island and Mount Pleasant. Lieutenant Snyder, Corps of Engineers, who had charge at this time of the battery firing in this direction, directed two or three shots at her with such effect as to put one of them through the vessel and cause her to haul down her colors, the flag of the so-called Confederate States, to hoist her anchor and sails, and get out of range as soon as possible.

One or two shots were thrown at the hulks which had been anchored in the channel, on a line between Cummings Point and Fort Moultrie, to be fired at night if our fleet should attempt to come in. As no person appeared on board, the fire was not continued in this direction.

The barracks caught fire three times during the day, from shells, apparently, but each time the flames, being in the first or second stories, were extinguished by a pump and application of the means at hand. Peter Hart, who was formerly a sergeant in Major Anderson's company, and employed by me at the time as a carpenter, was very active and efficient in extinguishing the flames.

The effect of the enemy's fire upon Fort Sumter, during the day was very marked in respect to the vertical fire. This was so well directed and so well sustained, that from the seventeen mortars engaged in firing 10-inch shells, one-half of the shells came within or exploded above the parapet of the fort, and only about ten buried themselves in the soft earth of the parade without exploding. In consequence of this precision of vertical fire, Major Anderson decided not to man the upper tier of guns, as by doing so the loss of men, notwithstanding the traverses and bomb-proof shelters that I had constructed, must have been great. These guns were therefore only fired once or twice by some men who ventured upon the parapet for this purpose. In doing this they managed without much care, producing little or no effect upon the enemy, besides doing injury to the guns. At the third fire of the 10-inch columbiad at the right gorge angle, it was omitted to throw the friction wheels out of bearing, and consequently in the recoil the gun ran entirely off its chassis, overturning itself, and in its fall dismounting the 8-inch sea-coast howitzer next to it.

The direction of the enemy's shells being from the northeast, north, southwest, and southeast, sought every part of the work, and the fuses being well graduated, exploded in most instances just within the line of parapet. To this kind of fire no return was made. The four 8-inch columbiads that I had planted in the parade to be used as mortars on Cummings Point were not used, neither was the 10-inch columbiad, arranged to fire shot and shells towards the city. The hot-shot furnaces were not used nor opened. The effect of the direct fire from the enemy's guns was not so marked as the vertical. For several hours firing from the commencement a large proportion of their shot missed the fort. Subsequently it improved, and did considerable damage to the roof and on the gorge. The aim of the guns during the day, with the exception of batteries Nos. 1 and 2, on Cummings Point, appeared to be directed to dismount the guns of our barbette tier. Those from Fort Moultrie succeeded in dismounting an 8-inch columbiad, and in striking on its side and cracking a second 8-inch columbiad, both situated on the right flank. The roof of the barracks on this flank and the stair towers were much damaged by this fire.

The shots from the guns in the batteries on the west end of Sullivan's Island did not produce any considerable direct effect, but many of them took the gorge in reverse in their fall, completely riddling the officers' quarters, even down to the first story, so great was the angle of fall of many of the balls.

Three of the iron cisterns over the hallways were destroyed by shots during the day, and the quarters below deluged by their contents of water, aiding in preventing the extension of the fire. The shots from these batteries and from Fort Moultrie, aimed at the embrasures, failed to produce any effect. None of the shot came through, although one shell exploded in the mouth of one embrasure.

A part of the guns from Cummings Point essayed to dismount the barbette tier on the gorge, and the remainder to breach the gorge, or rather the pan-coupe at the right gorge angle. At this latter point, two columbiads and a Blakely rifled gun fired almost constantly. The effect of this fire on this day was to breach around the embrasure of the first tier at the pan-coupe to a depth of twenty inches, and to put one shot through the filling, consisting of brick and bluestone combined, with which the embrasure opening of the second tier had been filled. One shot was also put through the top of the loophole window on the second tier, another through the top of the main gate, and a third through the magazine ventilator at the right of the gorge, falling between the pier and the inner wooden ceiling.

Three of the embrasure cheek-irons that I had placed in the second tier loopholes, were knocked out of place. Several of the stones that had been placed in the first tier loopholes were struck, but owing to the lead run in around them to hold them in place none were broken.

The penetration of the 8-inch columbiad balls from Cummings Point was eleven inches at the first shot-and that of the twelve-pound bolt from the Blakely gun was the same, as ascertained by measurement. The latter, however, threw its shot with greater accuracy, and with less time of flight, than the former. The distance was about 1,250 yards.

The shot from Cummings Point that passed a little over the gorge took the left face in reverse, damaging the masonry of the parade wall, coping, &c., and splintering the chassis of one gun in barbette. As an instance of strength of masonry, I may mention that one 10-inch shell from Cummings Point fell upon the second tier casemate arch, which was not covered by concrete or flagging, and so good was the masonry of this 15-inch arch that the shell did not go through, although it bedded itself, and broke off from the soffit below a large fragment of brickwork.

The night was very stormy, with high wind and tide. I found out, however, by personal inspection, that the exterior of the work was not damaged to any considerable extent, and that all the facilities for taking in supplies, in case they arrived, were as complete as circumstances would admit. The enemy threw shells every ten or fifteen minutes during the night. The making of cartridge bags was continued by the men, under Lieutenant Meade's directions, until 12 o'clock, when they were ordered to stop by Major Anderson. To obtain materials for the bags all the extra clothing of the companies was cut up, and all coarse paper and extra hospital sheets used.

April 13. - At daybreak no material alteration was observed in the enemy's batteries. The three U. S. men-of-war were still off the bar. The last of the rice was cooked this morning, and served with the pork-the only other article of food left in the engineer mess-room, where the whole command has messed since the opening of the fire. After this the fire was reopened, and continued very briskly as long as the increased supply of cartridges lasted. The enemy reopened fire at daylight, and continued it with rapidity. The aim of the enemy's gunners was better than yesterday. One shot from the rifled gun in the battery on Cummings Point struck the check of an embrasure in the right gorge angle, and sent a large number of fragments inside, wounding a sergeant and three men. The spent ball also came in with the fragments. An engineer employe, Mr. John Swearer, from Baltimore, Md., was severely wounded by pieces of a shell which burst inside the fort close to the casemates. One or two balls also penetrated the filling of the embrasure openings of the second tier, but fell entirely spent inside-one of them setting a man's bed on fire.

It soon became evident that they were firing hot shot from a large number of their guns, especially from those in Fort Moultrie, and at nine o'clock I saw volumes of smoke issuing from the roof of the officers' quarters, where a shot had just penetrated. From the exposed position it was utterly impossible to extinguish the flames, and I therefore immediately notified the commanding officer of the fact, and obtained his permission to remove as much powder from the magazine as was possible before the flames, which were only one set of quarters distant, should encircle the magazine and make it necessary to close it. All the men and officers not engaged at the guns worked rapidly and zealously at this, but so rapid was the spread of the flames that only fifty barrels of powder could be taken out and distributed around in the casemates before the fire and heat made it necessary to close the magazine doors and pack earth against them. The men when withdrew to the casemates on the faces of the fort. As soon as the flames and smoke burst from the roof of the quarters the enemy's batteries redoubled the rapidity of their fire, firing red-hot shot for most of their guns. The whole range of officers' quarters was soon in flames. The wing being from the southward, communicated fire to the roof of the barks, and this being aided by the hot shot constantly lodging there, spread to the entire roofs of both barracks, so that by twelve o'clock all the woodwork of quarters and of upper storey of barracks was in flames. Although the floors of the barracks were fire-proof, the utmost exertions of the officers and men were often required to prevent the fire communicating down the stairways, and from the exterior, to the doors, window frames, and other woodwork of the east barrack, in which the officers and men had taken their quarters. All the woodwork in the west barrack was burned. The clouds of smoke and cinders which were sent into the casemates by the wind set on fire many boxes, beds, and other articles belonging to the men, and made it dangerous to retain the powder which had been save from the magazine. The commanding officer accordingly gave orders to have all but five barrels thrown out of the embrasures into the water, which was done.

The small stock of cartridges now only allowed a gun to be fired at intervals of ten minutes. The flagstaff was struck by shot seven times during the day, and a fragment of shell cut the lanyard of the flag. The part thus cut was so connected that the flag must have come down by the run had not the flag been, as it was, twisted around both parts of the lanyard. During the night I endeavored to remedy this by lowering the topmast so as to reeve a new halyard, but failed in consequence of the sticking of the mast, which was swollen by the rain. The most that could be done was to reeve the uncut part of the lanyard through a block attached to the topmast, as high up as a man could climb, so that if the flag untwisted and came down it could be immediately rehoisted as high as this block.

As the fire reached the magazines of grenades that were arranged in the stair towers and implement rooms on the gorge, they exploded, completely destroying the stair towers at the west gorge angle, and nearly destroying the other.

At 1 o'clock the flagstaff, having been struck twice before this morning, fell. The flag was immediately secured by Lieutenant Hall, and as soon as it could be attached to a temporary staff, hoisted again upon the parapet at the middle of the right face by Lieutenant Snyder, Corps of Engineers, assisted by Hart, and Daveny, a laborer.

About this time information was brought to the commanding officer than Mr. Wigfall, bearing a white flag, was on the outside, and wished to see him. He accordingly went out to meet Mr. Wigfall, passing through the blazing gateway, accompanied by Lieutenant Snyder. In the mean time, however, Mr. Wigfall had passed to an embrasure on the left flank, where, upon showing the white flag upon his sword, he was permitted to enter, and Lieutenant Snyder entering immediately after, accompanied him down the batteries to where some other officers were posted, to whom Mr. Wigfall commenced to address himself, to the effect that he came from General Beauregard to desire that, inasmuch as the flag of the fort was shot down, a fire raging in the quarters, and the garrison in a great strait, hostilities be suspended, and the while flag raised for this object. He was replied to that our flag was again hoisted on the parapet, that the white flag would not be hoisted except by order of the commanding officer, and that his own batteries should set the example of suspending fire. He then referred to the fact of the batteries on Cummings Point, from which he came, having stopped firing, and asked that his own while flag might be waved to indicate to the batteries on Sullivan's Island to cease also. This was refused; but he was permitted to wave the white flag himself, getting into an embrasure for this purpose. Having done this for a few moments, Lieutenant Davis, First Artillery, permitted a corporal to relieve him. Very soon, however, a shot striking very near to the embrasure, the corporal jumped inside, and declared to Mr. Wigfall that "he would not hold his flag, for it was not respected."

At this moment the commanding officer, having re-entered through an embrasure, campe up. To him Mr. Wigfall addressed nearly the same remarks that he had used on entering, adding some complimentary things about the manner in which the defense had been made and ending by renewing the request to suspend hostilities in order to arrange terms of evacuation. The commanding officer desiring to know what terms he came to offer, Mr. Wigfall replied, "Any terms that you may desire-your own terms-the precise nature of which General Beauregard will arrange with you."

The commanding officer then accepted the conditions, saying that the terms he accepted were those proposed by General Beauregard on the 11th, namely: To evacuate the fort with his command, taking arms and all private and company property, saluting the United States flag as it was lowered, and being conveyed, if he desired it, to any northern port. With this understanding Mr. Wigfall left, and the white flag was raised and the United States flag lowered by order of the commanding officer.

Very soon after a boat arrived from the city, containing three aides of General Beauregard, with a message to the effect that, observing the white flag hoisted, General B. sent to inquire what aid he could lend in extinguishing the flames, &c. Being made acquainted with the condition of affairs and Mr. Wigfall's visit, they stated that the latter, although an aid of General Beauregard, had not seen him for two days.

The commanding officer then stated that the United States flag would be raised again, but yielded to the request of the aides for time to report to their chief and obtain his instructions. They soon returned with the approach of all conditions desired except the saluting of the flag as it was lowered, and this exception was subsequently removed after correspondence, In the morning communication was had with the fleet, and Captain Gillis paid a visit to the fort.

The evacuation was completed after saluting the flag, in doing which one man was instantly killed, one mortally and four severely wounded, by the premature discharge of a gun and explosion of a pile of cartridges. The whole command went on board a steamer which placed them on board the Isabel, where they remainder all night.

April 14. - The Isabel went over the bar and placed the whole command on board the steamer Baltic, which started for New York.

April 17. - Arrived in New York.

The following observations may be made upon the bombardment:

The enemy's fire on the second day, the 13th, was more rapid and more accurate than on the previous day. It seemed to be directed at the embrasures, and to set the quarters on fire. The latter object was fully attained, but not the former, for only two embrasures were struck- one at the right gorge angle by the rifled shot mentioned above, and the other at the left shoulder angle by a shot from the so-called floating battery, which struck the shutter, but without destroying it or entering the throat of the embrasure. The attempt to form a breach at the right gorge angle only succeeded in breaching around one embrasure to the depth of twenty-two inches, and in knocking off a large piece of one cheek, but without disabling the gun or rendering the embrasure inefficient. The barbette tier was not much injured by the second day's firing, none of the guns being dismounted by it, and few of them struck. The fire, however, destroyed all the gun carriages and splinter-proof shelters on the gorge.

After the cessation of fire, about six hundred shot-marks on the face of the scarp wall were counted, but they were so scattered that no breached effect could have been expected from such fire, and probably none was attempted except at the right gorge angle. The only effect of the direct fire during the two days was to disable three barbette guns, knock off large portion of the chimneys and brisk walls projecting above the parapet, and to set the quarters on fire with hot shot. The vertical fire produced more effect, as it prevented the working of the upper tier of guns, which were the only really effective guns in the fort, being columbiads, 8-inch sea-coast howitzers, and 42-pounders principally, and also prevented the use of the columbiads arranged in the parade to be used as mortars against Cummings Point. The shells that struck the stair towers nearly destroyed them, and filled the stairways with so much rubbish as to render them almost impassable. This, with the destruction of the stairs at the gorge by the explosion of the magazine of shells by the fire, made it almost impossible to get to the terre-plein.

The burning of the quarters and barracks produced a great effect on the defense while the fire lasted, inasmuch as the heat and smoke were almost stifling, and as the fire burned all around the magazines, obliging them to be closed, and thus preventing our getting powder to continue the firing. It also destroyed the main gates, and the gun carriages on the parapet of the gorge. But we could have resumed the firing as soon as the walls cooled sufficiently to open the magazines, and then, having blown down t he wall left projecting above the parapet, so as to get rid of flying bricks, and built up the main gates with stones and rubbish, the fort would actually have been in a more defensible condition than when the action commenced. In fact, it would have been better if the chimneys, roofs, and upper walls of the quarters and barracks had been removed before the firing begun, but the short notice and the small force did not permit anything of this kind to be done after the notice and the small force did not permit anything of this kind to be done after the notice of the attack was received.

The weakness of the defense principally lay in the lack of cartridge bags, and of the materials to make them, by which the fire of our batteries was, all the time, rendered slow, and towards the last was nearly suspended. The lack of a sufficient number of men to man the barbette tier of guns at the risk of losing several by the heavy vertical fire of the enemy also prevented us making use of the only guns that had the power to smash his iron-clad batteries, or of throwing shells into his open batteries, so as to destroy his cannoneers.

The want of provisions would soon have caused the surrender of the fort, but with plenty of cartridges the men would have cheerfully fought five or six days, and if necessary much longer, on pork alone, of which we had a sufficient supply.

I do not think that a breach could have been effected in the gorge at the distance of the battery on Cummings Point, within a week or ten days; and even then, with the small garrison to defend it, and means for obstructing it, at our disposal, the operation of assaulting it, with even vastly superior numbers, would have been very doubtful in its results.

Respectfully submitted.

J.G. FOSTER,
Captain, Engineers.

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No. 08

No. 8 - Reports from G.T. Beauregard (Brigadier General, C.S. Army) (See also "Correspondence and Orders")

These reports from G.T. Beauregard, Brigadier General of the Confederate States army, as he commands Confederate troops before and after the bombardment of Fort Sumter.

March 6, 1861 - Brigadier General G.T. Beauregard to Secretary of War LeRoy Walker

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Reports of Brigadier General G.T. Beauregard, C.S. Army, of operations against Fort Sumter.

HEADQUARTERS C.S. ARMY,
Charleston, S.C.,
March 6, 1861.

SIR: In obedience to War Department orders of the 1st instant I arrived at this place on the 3rd instant, and immediately reported to Governor Pickens for military duty. That day we inspected the floating battery now being constructed here. On the 4th instant we inspected the works on the southern portion of the harbor (Morris Island and Fort Johnson), and yesterday those on the north (Fort Moultrie, &c., including Castle Pinckney).

I have now the honor to state that I coincide fully in the opinion and views contained in Major W.H.C. Whiting's letter preceding his full report, and that, as I have not time to write more fully on the subject, I desire that portion of his letter referring to the above works should be annexed to this report, and a copy thereof sent to me for my files.

On Morris Island the flanking defects are being remedied, and will probably soon be completed, as well as the position, &c., of said works will permit. I have ordered that only six mortars, instead of twelve, intended for that point, should be put in position there. I have ordered the construction of a series of small batteries of heavy guns, two in each, and twenty in all, well protected by traverses along the channel shore of that island, said batteries to be about fifty or one hundred yards apart (according to the nature of the ground), to prevent the broadsides of a vessel, from silencing them in a few minutes. When those batteries shall be ready, I will remove into them all the heavy guns I can dispose of. I have ordered to that island the whole of Colonel Gregg's regiment, with two short 12-pounders and one light battery, for the protection of said works, selecting a strong natural position to protect their right flank from a land attack.

I have ordered an additional battery (for two mortars) to be constructed near Fort Johnson, to receive half of those intended for a defectively-placed mortar battery, to the south of said work, the latter not being in itself of much importance, containing only and open battery of four 24-pounders bearing on the inner harbor. At Fort Moultrie, towards the north of Fort Sumter, I have ordered additional traverses to be thrown up, of a better construction than those already there, for the protection of the channel guns against enfilade from Fort Sumter. Between Moultrie and the western extremity of Sullivan's Island I have ordered the construction of a four-gun concealed battery, to enfilade the channel face of Sumter, having nine or ten guns (en barbette) bearing on the Morris Island works. I have ordered two more 32-pounders to be added to the extreme five-gun battery, commanding the Maffitt or northern shore channel into the harbor, and I have selected the site of two more mortar batteries, of two each, to take in reverse the casemate and barbette guns of Fort Sumter bearing on Morris Island.

I have fortunately found that we would soon have mortars enough for all our present wants; but, generally, the carriages and chassis of nearly all the guns, especially those on the Morris Island works, are either defective or not of the proper kind. I am going to remedy this defect as soon as practicable.

I find that the gorge of Fort Sumter is too much inclined to the guns on Morris Island to be breached by them at this distance (thirteen hundred years); and, moreover, they have double the number of guns bearing on them, reversing thereby the advantages of the attack over the defense. If we succeed in constructing my enfilading battery on Sullivan's Island we will then have a preponderating fire against said gorge wall (four feet six inches thick); but, as already stated, at about thirteen hundred yards, and at an angle of about fifty degrees.

I find that the battery of heavy guns (10-inch columbiads), which I proposed putting up in the vicinity of Fort Johnson, would be impracticable (if we had said guns), the grounds being too low and marshy.

I have now given you a general view of the condition of the offensive works of this harbor, and I am of the opinion that, if Sumter was properly garrisoned and armed, it would be a perfect Gibraltar to anything bus constant shelling, night and day, from the four points of the compass. As it is, the weakness of the garrison constitutes our greatest advantage, and we must, for the present, turn our attention to preventing it from being re-enforced. This idea I am gradually and cautiously infusing into the minds of all here; but, should we have to open our batteries upon it, I hope to be able to do so with all the advantages the condition of things here will permit. All that I ask is time for completing my batteries and preparing and organizing properly my command, which is still in a more or less confused state, not having yet my general staff officers around me. So soon as I shall have here a competent engineer officer (Major Whiting arrived here on the 4th, and will probably heave again for Savannah to day, where his presence is required), I will send to the department a plan of this harbor, with the position, &c., of all the works marked thereon. Those Drummond lights, ordered from New York, will be here in about ten days.

I remain, sir, very respectfully,

G.T. BEAUREGARD,
Brigadier-General, Commanding.

to General L.P. WALKER,
Secretary of War, Montgomery, Ala.

[Inclosure.]

March 6, 1861 - Brigadier General G.T. Beauregard to Major William Whiting

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Reports of Brigadier General G.T. Beauregard, C.S. Army, of operations against Fort Sumter.

CHARLESTON, S.C.,
March 6, 1861.

GENERAL: I have the honor to report that I proceeded to Morris Island this morning, and commenced establishing battery positions.

I. Directed the Dahlgren battery to be modified. Retired the interior crest of the right gun, so as to obtain a raking fire on the whole approach, and on the beach, and placed a traverse between the two, and directed the rear of the battery to be excavated, to give a relief of at least eight to interior crest. It is absolutely necessary that these guns be placed en barbette; otherwise, unless the epaulement is cut down to two, they cannot be depressed sufficiently for the short ranges on the ship's carriages.

II. Battery A, for two 8-inch columbiads (new position). The relative positions of the different batteries will be indicated on the chart by the engineer and submitted to you to-morrow.

III. Arranged and modified the Star of the West battery, giving greater relief, reducing the platform, locating necessary traverses, and adding one 24-pounder. Directed the two field pieces for line and land defense.

IV. Battery B, for two guns, one 8-inch columbiad, and one 8-inch sea-coast.

V. Battery C, for one 8-inch sea-coast and one 42-pounder.

VI. Battery D, for two 24-pounders.

VII. Battery E, two 24-pounders, at nearly right angles to the brush. To protect the two last from Hunter, the left traverse must cross the epaulement.

VIII. Battery F, partially finished, for two 8-inch sea-coast howitzers and two 24-pounders. The howitzers are on casemate carriages, and must be changed.

The arrangement of these batteries will, in general, be identical, except when the siege carriage is used in the Star of the West battery, and in E, and G, the latter of three 24-pounders, partly done. Therefore the guns can be placed in different order, if thought best. I placed the guns of longest range farthest from Hunter,, as having greater effect upon the distant approach. Examination of the maps, when complete, will show the field of fire. Of these guns there are now on the island three 8-inch columbiads, now mounted on casemate carriages in battery; Numbers 2 as a siege battery on Sumter; two 42-pounders, mounted on casemate carriages, siege battery on Sumter. The two Dahlgrens and the two 8-inch sea-coast, on the casement trenches. All the above require barbette carriages. Of these, the barbette carriages for the columbiads are nearly ready; also, for the sea coast. There are also eight 24-pounders on siege carriages already mounted on the channel; in all, fifteen. There are required for the proposed addition two sea-coast howitzers, now at Pinckney, and five 24-pounders also at Pinckney; making, in all, twenty-two guns to be provided. The arrangement is that indicated in the plan this morning. I am doubtful which battery to commence first. Perhaps in order from the Dahlgren, although it would be best to have them done simultaneously. There is want of labor, and great want of proper quartermaster and commissary arrangements for the labor. All the work on the siege batteries should be suspended, and turned to proper account on the channel.

Please to direct the enlarged chart, made by Lieutenant Gregorie, South Carolina Engineers, for the governor, to be sent down to have the positions of the batteries located upon it, for your information.

W.H.C. WHITING,
Major, Engineers.

to General BEAUREGARD,
Charleston Hotel.

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March 6, 1861 - Brigadier General G.T. Beauregard to Major William Whiting

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Reports of Brigadier General G.T. Beauregard, C.S. Army, of operations against Fort Sumter.

CHARLESTON, S.C.,
March 6, 1861.

GENERAL: I have the honor to report that I proceeded to Morris Island this morning, and commenced establishing battery positions.

I. Directed the Dahlgren battery to be modified. Retired the interior crest of the right gun, so as to obtain a raking fire on the whole approach, and on the beach, and placed a traverse between the two, and directed the rear of the battery to be excavated, to give a relief of at least eight to interior crest. It is absolutely necessary that these guns be placed en barbette; otherwise, unless the epaulement is cut down to two, they cannot be depressed sufficiently for the short ranges on the ship's carriages.

II. Battery A, for two 8-inch columbiads (new position). The relative positions of the different batteries will be indicated on the chart by the engineer and submitted to you to-morrow.

III. Arranged and modified the Star of the West battery, giving greater relief, reducing the platform, locating necessary traverses, and adding one 24-pounder. Directed the two field pieces for line and land defense.

IV. Battery B, for two guns, one 8-inch columbiad, and one 8-inch sea-coast.

V. Battery C, for one 8-inch sea-coast and one 42-pounder.

VI. Battery D, for two 24-pounders.

VII. Battery E, two 24-pounders, at nearly right angles to the brush. To protect the two last from Hunter, the left traverse must cross the epaulement.

VIII. Battery F, partially finished, for two 8-inch sea-coast howitzers and two 24-pounders. The howitzers are on casemate carriages, and must be changed.

The arrangement of these batteries will, in general, be identical, except when the siege carriage is used in the Star of the West battery, and in E, and G, the latter of three 24-pounders, partly done. Therefore the guns can be placed in different order, if thought best. I placed the guns of longest range farthest from Hunter,, as having greater effect upon the distant approach. Examination of the maps, when complete, will show the field of fire. Of these guns there are now on the island three 8-inch columbiads, now mounted on casemate carriages in battery; Numbers 2 as a siege battery on Sumter; two 42-pounders, mounted on casemate carriages, siege battery on Sumter. The two Dahlgrens and the two 8-inch sea-coast, on the casement trenches. All the above require barbette carriages. Of these, the barbette carriages for the columbiads are nearly ready; also, for the sea coast. There are also eight 24-pounders on siege carriages already mounted on the channel; in all, fifteen. There are required for the proposed addition two sea-coast howitzers, now at Pinckney, and five 24-pounders also at Pinckney; making, in all, twenty-two guns to be provided. The arrangement is that indicated in the plan this morning. I am doubtful which battery to commence first. Perhaps in order from the Dahlgren, although it would be best to have them done simultaneously. There is want of labor, and great want of proper quartermaster and commissary arrangements for the labor. All the work on the siege batteries should be suspended, and turned to proper account on the channel.

Please to direct the enlarged chart, made by Lieutenant Gregorie, South Carolina Engineers, for the governor, to be sent down to have the positions of the batteries located upon it, for your information.

W.H.C. WHITING,
Major, Engineers.

to General BEAUREGARD,
Charleston Hotel.

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April 17, 1861 - Brigadier General G.T. Beauregard to Secretary of War LeRoy Walker

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Reports of Brigadier General G.T. Beauregard, C.S. Army, of operations against Fort Sumter.

HEADQUARTERS PROVISIONAL ARMY, C.S.A.,
Charleston, S.C.,
April 17, 1861.

SIR: I have the honor to transmit by Colonel R. A. Pryor, one of my aides (who like the others was quite indefatigable and fearless in conveying my orders, in an open boat, from these headquarters to the batteries during the bombardment), a general report of the attack of the 12th instant on Fort Sumter. This report would have been sent sooner if my other pressing duties had permitted me to devote my time to it, while the presence of the enemy's fleet still led us to expect an attack along the coast at any moment. A more detailed account will be sent forward as soon as the returns of the commanders of batteries shall have reached this office. The great difficulty I will labor under will be to do full justice to all when so much zeal, energy, and gallantry were displayed by officers and soldiers in the execution of my orders. I wish, however, to record two incidents, which will illustrate the feelings that animated all here.

Whilst the barracks in Fort Sumter were in a blaze, and the interior of the work appeared untenable from the heat and from the fire of our batteries (at about which period I sent three of my aides to offer assistance in the name of the Confederate States), whenever the guns of Fort Sumter would fire upon Fort Moultrie the men occupying Cummings Point batteries (Palmetto Guard, Captain Cuthbert) at each shot would cheer Anderson for his gallantry, although themselves still firing upon him, and when on the 15th instant he left the harbor on the steamer Isabel the soldiers of the batteries on Cummings Point lined the beach, silent, and with heads uncovered, while Anderson and his command passed before them, and expressions of scorn at the apparent cowardice of the fleet in not even attempting to rescue so gallant an officer and his command were upon the lips of all. With such material for an army, if properly disciplined, I would consider myself almost invincible against any forces not too greatly superior.

The fire of those barracks was only put out on the 15th instant, p.m., after great exertions by the gallant fire companies of this city, who were an their pumps night and day, although aware that close by them was a magazine filled with thirty thousand pounds of powder, with a shot-hole through the wall of its anteroom.

I am now removing the tottering walls of the buildings within, and clearing away all the rubbish, &c., from the interior of the work, so as to render it still more formidable than it was before it was attacked.

In one or two days I will send forward to you photographs taken at different points of sight, from which you can clearly understand the condition of the fort within when first occupied by us.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G.T. BEAUREGARD,
Brigadier-General, Commanding.

to Honorable L.P. WALKER,
Secretary of War, Montgomery, Ala.

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April 16, 1861 - Brigadier General G.T. Beauregard to Secretary of War LeRoy Walker

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Reports of Brigadier General G.T. Beauregard, C.S. Army, of operations against Fort Sumter.

HEADQUARTERS PROVISIONAL ARMY, C.S.A.,
Charleston, S.C.,
April 16, 1861.

SIR: I have the honor to submit the following summary statement of the circumstances of the surrender of Fort Sumter:

On the refusal of Major Anderson to engage, in compliance with my demand, to designate the time when he would evacuate Fort Sumter, and to agree meanwhile not to use his guns against us, at 3,20 o'clock in the morning of the 12th instant I gave him formal notice that within one hour my batteries would open on him. In consequence of some circumstance of delay the bombardment was not begun precisely at the appointed moment, but at 4.30 o'clock the signal gun was fired, and within twenty minutes all our batteries were in full play. There was no response from Fort Sumter until about 7 o'clock, when the first shot from the enemy was discharged against our batteries on Cummings Point.

By 8 o'clock the action became general, and throughout the day was maintained with spirit on both sides. Our guns were served with skill and energy. The effect was visible in the impressions made on the walls of Fort Sumter. From our mortar batteries shells were thrown with such precision and rapidity that it soon became impossible for the enemy to employ his guns en barbette, of which several were dismounted. The engagement was continued without any circumstances of special note until nightfall, before which time the fire from Sumter had evidently slackened. Operations on our side were sustained throughout the night, provoking, however, only a feebly response.

On the morning of the 13th the action was prosecuted with renewed vigor, and about 7 1/2 o'clock it was discovered our shells had set fire to the barracks in the fort. Speedily volumes of smoke indicated an extensive conflagration, and apprehending some terrible calamity to the garrison I immediately dispatched an offer of assistance to Major Anderson, which, however, with grateful acknowledgments, he declined. Meanwhile, being informed about 2 o'clock that a white flag was displayed from Sumter, I dispatched two of my aides to Major Anderson with terms of evacuation. In recognition of the gallantry exhibited by the garrison I cheerfully agreed that on surrendering the fort the commanding officer might salute his flag.

By 8 o'clock the terms of evacuation were definitely accepted. Major Anderson having expressed a desire to communicate with the United States vessels lying off the harbor, with a view to arrange for the transportation of his command to some port in the United States, one of his officers, accompanied by Captain Harstene and three of my aides, was permitted to visit the officer in command of the squadron to make provision for that object. Because of an unavoidable delay the formal transfer of the fort to our possession did not take place until 4 o'clock in the afternoon of the 14th instant. At that hour, the place having been evacuated by the United States garrison, our troops occupied it, and the Confederate flag was hoisted on the ramparts of Sumter with a salute from the various batteries.

The steamer Isabel having been placed at the service of Major Anderson, he and his command were transferred to the United States vessels off the harbor.

The urgency of immediate engagements prevents me from giving at present a more circumstantial narrative of the incidents connected with the capture of Fort Sumter. When the reports from the various commanders of batteries are received I will hasten to forward you a more detailed account.

In conclusion, I am happy to state that the troops, both officers and soldiers, of the Regulars, Volunteers, Militia, and Navy, by their energy, zeal, perseverance, labor, and endurance before the attack, and by their courage and gallantry during its continuance, exhibited all the characteristics of the best troops; and to my staff, Regular and Volunteer, I am much indebted for the prompt and complete execution of my orders, which had to be communicated in open boats during the bombardment to the different batteries then engaged.

I remain, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G.T. BEAUREGARD,
Brigadier-General, Commanding.

to Honorable L. P. WALKER,
Secretary of War, Montgomery, Ala.

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April 27, 1861 - Brigadier General G.T. Beauregard to Secretary of War LeRoy Walker

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Reports of Brigadier General G.T. Beauregard, C.S. Army, of operations against Fort Sumter.

HEADQUARTERS PROVISIONAL ARMY, C.S.,
Charleston, S.C.,
April 27, 1861.

SIR: I have the honor to transmit to the Department with this my detailed report of the operations conducted during the bombardment of Fort Sumter, accompanied by copies of the reports sent in to this office by the commandants of batteries, together with a series of photographs (twenty-two in number), showing the condition of Forts Sumter and Moultrie and of the floating battery after the surrender of the former fort.*

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G.T. BEAUREGARD,
Brigadier-General, Commanding.

to Honorable L.P. WALKER,
Secretary of War, Montgomery, Ala.

* Photographs not found.

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April 27, 1861 - Brigadier General G.T. Beauregard to Brigadier General Samuel Cooper

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Reports of Brigadier General G.T. Beauregard, C.S. Army, of operations against Fort Sumter.

HEADQUARTERS PROVISIONAL ARMY,
Charleston, S.C.,
April 27, 1861.

SIR: I have the honor to submit the following detailed report of the bombardment and surrender of Fort Sumter and the incidents connected therewith:

Having completed my channel defenses and batteries in the harbor necessary for the reduction of Fort Sumter, I dispatched two of my aides at 2.20 p.m., on Thursday, the 11th of April, with a communication to Major Anderson, in command of the fortification, demanding its evacuation. I offered to transport himself and command to any port in the United States he might elect, to allow him to move out of the fort with company arms and property and all private property, and to salute his flag in lowering it. He refused to accede to the demand. As my aides were about leaving Major Anderson remarked that if we did not batter him to pieces he would be starved out in a few days, or words to that effect. This being reported to me by my aides on their return with his refusal, at 5.10 p.m., I deemed it proper to telegraph the purport of his remark to the Secretary of War. In reply I received by telegraph the following instructions at 9.10 p.m.: "Do not desire needlessly to bombard Fort Sumter. If Major Anderson will state the time at which, as indicated by him, he will evacuate, and agree that in the mean time he will not use his guns against us unless should be employed against Fort Sumter, you are authorized thus to avoid effusion of blood. If this, or its equivalent, be refused, reduce the fort as your judgment decides to be most practicable."

At 11 p.m. I sent my aides with a communication to Major Anderson based on the foregoing instructions.* It was placed in his hands at 12.45 a.m. 12th instant. He expressed his willingness to evacuate the fort on Monday at noon if provided with the necessary means of transportation, and if he should not receive contradictory instructions from his Government or additional supplies, but he declined to agree not to open his guns upon us in the event of any hostile demonstrations on our part against his flag. This reply, which was opened and shown to my aides, plainly indicated that if instructions should be received contrary to his purpose to evacuate, or if he should receive his supplies, or if the Confederate troops should fire on hostile troops of the United States, or upon transports bearing the United States flag, containing men, munitions, and supplies designed for hostile operations against us, he would still feel himself bound to fire upon us, and to hold possession of the fort.

As, in consequence of a communication from the President of the United States to the governor of South Carolina, we were in momentary expectation of an attempt to re-enforce Fort Sumter, or of a descent upon our coast to that end from the United States fleet then lying at the entrance of the harbor, it was manifestly an imperative necessity to reduce the fort as speedily as possible, and not to wait until the ships and the fort should unite in a combined attack upon us. Accordingly my aides, carrying out my instructions, promptly refused to accede to the terms proposed by Major Anderson, and notified him in writing that our batteries would open upon Fort Sumter in one hour. This notification was given at 3.20 a.m. of Friday, the 12th instant. The signal shell was fired from Fort Johnson at 4.30 a.m. At about 5 o'clock the fire from our batteries became general. Fort Sumter did not open fire until 7 o'clock, when it commenced with a vigorous fire upon the Cummings Point iron battery. The enemy next directed his fire upon the enfilade battery on Sullivan's Island, constructed to sweep the parapet of Fort Sumter, to prevent the working of the barbette guns and to dismount them. This was also the aim of the floating battery, the Dahlgren battery, and the gun batteries at Cummings Point.

The enemy next opened on Fort Moultrie, between which and Fort Sumter a steady and almost constant fire was kept up throughout the day. These three points-Fort Moultrie, Cummings Point, and the end of Sullivan's Island, where the floating battery, Dahlgren battery, and the enfilade battery were placed-were the points to which the enemy seemed almost to confine his attention, although he fired a number of shots at Captain Butler's mortar battery, situated to the east of Fort Moultrie, and a few at Captain James' mortar batteries at Fort Johnson.

During the day (12th instant) the fire of my batteries was kept up most spiritedly, the guns and mortars being worked in the coolest manner, preserving the prescribed intervals of firing. Towards evening it became evident that our fire was very effective, as the enemy was driven from his barbette gun which he attempted to work in the morning, and his fire was confined to his casemated guns, but in a less active manner than in the morning, and it was observed that several of his guns en barbette were disabled. During the whole of Friday night our mortar batteries continued to throw shells, but, in obedience to orders, at longer intervals. The night was rainy and dark, and as it was almost confidently expected that the United States fleet would attempt to land troops upon the island troops upon the islands or to throw men into Fort Sumter by means of boats, the greatest vigilance was observed at all our channel batteries, and by our troops on both Morris and Sullivan's Islands.

Early on Saturday morning all of our batteries reopened upon Fort Sumter, which responded vigorously for a time, directing fire specially against Fort Moultrie. About 8 o'clock a.m. smoke was seen issuing from the quarters of Fort Sumter. Upon this the fire of our batteries was increased, as a matter of course, for the purpose of bringing the enemy to terms as speedily as possibly, inasmuch as his flag was still floating defiantly above him. Fort Sumter continued to fire from time to time, but at long and irregular intervals, amid the dense smoke, flying shot, and bursting shells. Our brave troops, carried away by their natural generous impulses, mounted the different batteries, and at every discharge from the fort cheered the garrison for its pluck and gallantry, and hooted the fleet lying inactive just outside the bar.

About 1.30 p.m., it being reported to me that the flag was down (it afterwards appeared that the flag-staff had been shot away), and the conflagration from the large volume of smoke being apparently on the increase, I sent three of my aides with a message to Major Anderson to the effect that seeing his flag no longer flying, his quarters in flames, and supposing him to be in distress, I desired to offer him any assistance he might stand in need of. Before my aides reached the fort the United States flag was displayed on the parapet, but remained there only a short time, when it was hauled down and a white flag substituted in its place. When the United States flag first disappeared the firing from our batteries almost entirely ceased, but reopened with increased vigor when it reappeared on the parapet, and was continued until the white flag was raised, when it ceased entirely. Upon the arrival of my aides at Fort Sumter they delivered their message to Major Anderson, who replied that he thanked me for my offer, but desired no assistance.

Just previous to their arrival Colonel Wigfall, one of my aides, who had been detached for special duty on Morris Island, had, by order of Brigadier-General Simons, crossed over to Fort Sumter from Cummings Point in an open boat, with private Gourdin Young, amidst a heavy fire of shot and shell, for the purpose of ascertaining from Major Aderson whether his intention was to surrender, his flag being down and his quarters in flames. On reaching the fort the colonel had an interview with Major Anderson, the result of which was that Major Anderson understood him as offering the same conditions on the part of General Beauregard as had been tendered him on the 11th instant, while Colonel Wigfall's impression was that Major Anderson unconditionally surrendered, trusting to the generosity of General Beauregard to offer such terms as would be honorable and acceptable to both parties. Meanwhile, before these circumstances were reported to me, and in fact soon after the aides whom I had dispatched with the offer of assistance had set out on their mission, hearing that a white flag was flying over the fort, I sent Major Jones, the chief of my staff, and some other aides, with substantially the same propositions I had submitted to Major Anderson on the 11th instant, with the exception of the privilege of saluting his flag. The Major (Anderson) replied, "it would be exceedingly gratifying to him, as well as to his command, to be permitted to salute their flag, having so gallantly defended the fort under such trying circumstances, and hoped that General Beauregard would not refuse it, as such a privilege was not unusual." He further said he "would not urge the point, but would prefer to refer the matter again to me." The point was, therefore, left open until the matter was submitted to me.

Previous to the return of Major Jones I sent a fire engine, under Mr. M. H. Nathan, chief of the fire department, and Surgeon-General Gibbes, of South Carolina, with several of my aides, to offer further assistance to the garrison at Fort Sumter, which was declined. I very cheerfully agreed to alow the salute, as an honorable testimony to the gallantry and fortitude with which Major Anderson and his command had defended their post, and I informed Major Anderson of my decision about 7 1/2 o'clock, through Major Jones, my chief of staff.

The arrangements being completed Major Anderson embarked with his command on the transport prepared to convey him to the United States fleet lying outside the bar, and our troops immediately garrisoned the fort, and before sunset the flag of the Confederate States floated over the ramparts of Fort Sumter.

I commend in the highest terms the gallantry of every one under my command, and it is with diffidence that I will mention any corps or names for fear of doing injustice to those not mentioned, for where all have done their duty well it is difficult to discriminate. Although the troops out of the batteries bearing on Fort Sumter were not so fortunate as their comrades working the guns and mortars, still their services were equally as valuable and as commendable, for they were on their arms at the channel batteries, and at their posts and bivouac and exposed to severe weather and constant watchfulness, expecting every moment and ready to repel re-enforcements from the powerful fleet off the bar, and to all the troops, under my command I award much praise for their gallantry, and the cheerfulness with which they met the duties required of them. I feel much indebted to Generals R. G. M. Dunovant and James Simons and their staffs, especially Majors Evans and De Saussure, South Carolina Army, commanding on Sullivan's and Morris' Islands, for their valuable and gallant services, and the discretion they displayed in executing the duties devolving on their responsible positions. Of Lieutenant Colonel R. S. Ripley, First Artillery Battalion, commandant of batteries on Sullivan's Island, I cannot speak too highly, and join with General Dunovant, his immediate commander since January last, in commending in the highest terms his sagacity, experience, and unflagging zeal. I would also mention in the highest terms of praise Captains Calhoun and Hallonquist, assistant commandants of batteries to Colonel Ripley; and the following commanders of batteries on Sullivan's Island; Captain J. R. Hamilton, commanding the floating battery and Dahlgren gun; Captains Butler, South Carolina Army, and Bruns aide-de-camp to General Dunovant, and Lieutenants Wagner, Rhett, Yates, Valentine and Parker.

To Lieutenant Colonel W. G. De Saussure Second Artillery Battalion, commandant of batteries on Morris Island, too much praise cannot be given. He displayed the most untiring energy, and his judicious arrangements and the good management of his batteries contributed much to the reduction of Fort Sumter. To Major Stevens, of the Citadel Academy, in charge of the Cummings Point batteries, I feel much indebted for his valuable and scientific assistance, and the efficient working of the batteries under his immediate charge. The Cummings Point batteries (iron-42 pounder and mortar) were manned by the Palmetto Guards, Captain Cuthbert, and I take pleasure in expressing my admiration of the service of the gallant captain and his distinguished company during the action.

I would also mention in terms of praise the following commanders of batteries at the point, viz: Lieutenants Armstrong, of the Citadel Academy and Brownfield, of the Palmetto Guards; also Captain Thomas, of the Citadel Academy, who had charge of the rifled cannon, and had the honor of using this valuable weapon-a gift of one of South Carolina's distant sons to his native State-with peculiar effect. Captain J. G. King, with his company, the Marion Artillery, commanded the mortar battery in rear of the Cummings Point batteries, and the accuracy of his shell practice was the theme of general admiration. Captain George S. James, commanding at Fort Johnson, had the honor of firing the first shell at Fort Sumter, and his conduct and that of those under him was commendable during the action. Captain Martin, South Carolina Army, commanded the Mount Pleasant mortar battery, and with his assistants did good service. For a more detailed account of the gallantry of officers and men, and of the various incidents of the attack on Fort Sumter, I would respectfully invite your attention to the copies of the reports of the different officers under my command, herewith inclosed.

I cannot close my report without reference to the following gentlemen: To his excellency Governor Pickens and staff, especially Colonels Lamar and Dearing, who were so active and efficient in the construction of the channel batteries; Colonels Lucas and Moore for assistance on various occasions, and Colonel Duryea and Mr. Nathan (chief of the fire department) for their gallant assistance in putting out the fire at Fort Sumter when the magazine of the latter was in imminent danger of explosion; General Jamison, Secretary of War, and General S. R. Gist, adjutant-general, for their valuable assistance in obtaining and dispatching the troops for the attack on Fort Sumter and defense of the batteries; Quartermaster's and Commissary Department, Colonel Hatch and Colonel Walker, and the ordnance board, especially Colonel Manigault, Chief of Ordnance, whose zeal and activity were untiring: The Medical Department, whose preparations had been judiciously and amply made, but which a kind Providence rendered unnecessary; the Engineers, Majors Whiting and Gwynn, Captains Trapier and Lee, and Lieutenants McCrady, Earle, and Gregoric, on whom too much praise cannot be bestowed for their untiring zeal, energy, and gallantry, and to whose labors is greatly due the unprecedented example of taking such an important work after thirty-three hours' firing without having to report the loss of a single life, and but four slightly wounded. From Major W. H . C. Whiting I derived also much assistance, not only as an engineer, in selecting the sites and laying out the channel batteries on Morris Island, but as acting assistant adjutant and inspector-general in arranging and stationing the troops on said island. To the naval department, especially Captain Hartstene, one of my volunteer aides, who was perfectly indefatigable in guarding the entrance into the harbor, and in transmitting my orders; Lieutenant T. B. Huger, who was also of much service, first as inspecting ordnance officer of batteries, then in charge of the batteries on the south end of Morris Island; Lieutenant Warley, who commanded the Dahlgren channel battery; also the schoolship, which was kindly offered by the board of directors, and was of much service; Lieutenant Rutledge, who was acting inspector-general of ordnance of all the batteries, in which capacity, assisted by Lieutenant Williams, C. S. A., on Morris Island, he was of much service in organizing and distributing the ammunition; Captains Childs and Jones, assistant commandant of batteries; to Lieutenant-Colonel De Saussure, Captains Winder and Allston, acting assistant adjutant and inspector-general to General Simons' brigade; Captain Manigaualt, of my staff, attached on General Simons' staff, who did efficient and gallant services on Morris Island during the fight; Prof. Lewis R. Gibbes, of Charleston College, and his aides, for their valuable services in operating the Drummond lights established at the extensions of Sullivan's and Morris Islands. The venerable and gallant Edmund Ruffin, of Virginia, was at the Iron battery, and fired many guns, undergoing every fatigue and sharing the hardships at the battery with the youngest of the Palmettoes. To my regular staff, Major Jones, C. S. A.; Captains Lee and Ferguson, South Carolina Army, and Lieutenant Legare, South Carolina Army, and volunteer staff, Messrs. Chisolm, Wigfall, Chesnut, Manning, Miles, Gonzales, and Pryor, I am much indebted for their indefatigable and valuable assistance night and day during the attack on Fort Sumter, transmitting in open boats my orders when called upon with alacrity and cheerfulness to the different batteries amidst falling balls and bursting shells, Captain Wigfall being the first in Sumter to receive the surrender.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G.T. BEAUREGARD,
Brigadier-General, Commanding.

to Brigadier General COOPER,
Adjutant-General, C.S.A.

* Correspondence referred to (inclosures from the reports of Robert Anderson):

April 11, 1861 - Brigadier General G.T. Beauregard to Major Robert Anderson

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Reports of Major Robert Anderson, 1st U.S. Artillery, of the bombardment and evacuation of Fort Sumter.

1.]

HEADQUARTERS PROVISIONAL ARMY, C.S.A.,
Charleston, S.C.,
April 11, 1861.

SIR: The Government of the Confederate States has hitherto forborne from any hostile demonstration against Fort Sumter, in the hope that the Government of the United States, with a view to the amicable adjustment of all questions between the two Governments, and to avert the calamities of war, would voluntarily evacuate it.

There was reason at one time to believe that such would be the course pursued by the Government of the United States, and under that impression my Government has refrained from making any demand for the surrender of the fort. But the Confederate States can no longer delay assuming actual possession of a fortification commanding the entrance of one of their harbors, and necessary to its defense and security. I am ordered by the Government of the Confederate States to demand the evacuation of Fort Sumter. My aides, Colonel Chesnut and Captain Lee, are authorized to make such demand of you. All proper facilities will be afforded for the removal of yourself and command, together with company arms and property and all private property, to any post in the United States which you may select. The flag which you have upheld so long as with so much fortitude, under the most trying circumstances, may be saluted by you on taking it down.

Colonel Chesnut and Captain Lee will, for a reasonable time, await your answer.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G.T. BEAUREGARD,
Brigadier-General, Commanding.

to Major ROBERT ANDERSON,
Commanding at Fort Sumter, Charleston Harbor, S.C.

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April 11, 1861 - Brigadier General G.T. Beauregard to Major Robert Anderson

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Reports of Major Robert Anderson, 1st U.S. Artillery, of the bombardment and evacuation of Fort Sumter.

3.]

HEADQUARTERS PROVISIONAL ARMY, C.S.A.,
Charleston, S.C.,
April 11, 1861.

MAJOR: In consequence of the verbal observation made by you to my aides, Messrs. Chesnut and Lee, in relation to the condition of your supplies, and that you would in a few days be starved out if our guns did not batter you to pieces, or words to that effect, and desiring no useless effusion of blood, I communicated both the verbal observations and your written answer to my communications to my Government.

If you will state the time at which you will evacuate Fort Sumter, and agree that in the mean time you will not use your guns against us unless ours shall be employed against Fort Sumter, we will abstain from opening fire upon you. Colonel Chesnut and Captain Lee are authorized by me to enter into such an agreement with you. You are, therefore, requested to communicate to them an open answer.

I remain, major, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G.T. BEAUREGARD,
Brigadier-General, Commanding.

to Major ROBERT ANDERSON,
Commanding Fort Sumter, Charleston Harbor, S.C.

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April 12, 1861 - Colonel James Chesnut / Captain Stephen Lee to Major Robert Anderson

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Reports of Major Robert Anderson, 1st U.S. Artillery, of the bombardment and evacuation of Fort Sumter.

5.]

FORT SUMTER, S.C.,
April 12, 1861-3.20 a.m.

SIR: By authority of Brigadier-General Beauregard, commanding the Provisional Forces of the Confederate States, we have the honor to notify you that he will open the fire of his batteries on Fort Sumter in one hour from this time.

We have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JAMES CHESNUT, JR.,
Aide-de-Camp.

STEPHEN D. LEE,
Captain, C.S. Army, Aide-de-Camp.

to Major ROBERT ANDERSON,
U.S. Army, Commanding Fort Sumter.

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May 1, 1861 - Brigadier General G.T. Beauregard to Secretary of War LeRoy Walker

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Reports of Brigadier General G.T. Beauregard, C.S. Army, of operations against Fort Sumter.

HEADQUARTERS PROVISIONAL ARMY, C.S.,
Charleston, S.C.,
May 1, 1861.

SIR: I have the honor to send you by the bearer, Captain S.W. Ferguson, South Carolina Regulars, my regular aide, and Lieutenant Colonel A.R. Chisolm (aide to Governor Pickens), one of my volunteer aides, the flag which waved on Fort Moultrie during the bombardment of Fort Sumter and was thrice cut by the enemy's balls. Being the first Confederate flag thus baptized, I have thought it worth sending to the War Department for preservation. I should have brought it on myself, but my present indisposition will prevent me from leaving here for a day or two.

I remain, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G.T. BEAUREGARD,
Brigadier-General, Commanding.

to Honorable L.P. WALKER,
Secretary of War.

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No. 09

No. 9 - Report of R.G.M. Dunovant (Brigadier General, S.C. Army)

This report from R.G.M. Dunovant, Brigadier General of the South Carolina Army, details Confederate operations against Fort Sumter.

April 21, 1861 - Brigadier General R.G.M. Dunovant to Asst. Adj. Gen. David Jones

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Report of Brigadier General R.G.M. Dunovant, South Carolina Army, of operations against Fort Sumter

HEADQUARTERS, SOUTH CAROLINA ARMY,
Sullivan's Island,
April 21, 1861.

MAJOR: I have the honor to report that on Tuesday morning, April 9, in obedience to orders from your headquarters, I came down to Sullivan's Island attended by the following members of my staff: Major N.G. Evans, S.C.A., adjutant-general; First Lieutenant Warren Adams, S.C.A., and Second Lieutenant Robert Pringle, S.C.A., aides-de-camp; Major W.D. De Saussure and Captain J.D. Bruns, special aides-de-camp.

Information having been received which led us to expect a determined effort on the part of the United States Government to re-enforce Fort Sumter, I at once made all the necessary preparations to prevent if possible, the success of this attempt. The batteries in process of erection at the eastern extremity of the island were rapidly pushed to completion. Colonel Pettigrew had already taken precautions against a surprise by establishing a picket-guard on Long Island and by doubling the sentries on Sullivan's Island.

On the morning of the 11th I received the entire forces under my command, Colonel Pettigrew's regiment of rifles occupying and defending the eastern third of the island with the assistance of the Charleston Light Dragoons, and the General Flying Artillery in charge of a field battery attached to his command, and Colonel Anderson's regiment of the First Infantry being held in readiness to act as reserve or to be thrown on any point where their services were required.

It affords me sincere gratification to record that, although happily Colonel Pettigrew's regiment was not called into action, and had little share in the perils and honors of the recent engagement, their patient endurance of every privation, and their prompt and cheerful response to every call of duty during a long continued service, entitle them to unqualified commendation. I may add that as soon as they heard the sound of our guns, twenty-four members of the regiment of rifles went down under fire to the floating battery, their boat narrowly escaping being sunk.

Colonel Anderson's regiment of regulars also deserve special notice for the good order, spirit, and energy which have universally characterized the command. Three companies of his regiment, Captain Martin's, Captain Butler's, and Lieutenant Valentine's, were detached for duty as artillerists under Lieutenant-Colonel Ripley, and for their share in the bombardment I would respectfully refer you to the report of the lieutenant-colonel commanding the batteries.

The defenses of Fort Moultrie and the preparation of the gun and mortar batteries above and below this post seemed to me to be complete and satisfactory. For this no small measure of praise is due to the sagacity, experience, and unflagging zeal of Lieutenant Colonel R. S. Ripley, commanding First Battalion Artillery, who was assigned to duty under my command on the 2nd day of January last, when Fort Moultrie was generally considered untenable. The suggestions made by this officer in his reports respecting the defenses of the fort have in almost every instance been carried out, and their value has been triumphantly illustrated by the severe test to which they were subjected in the recent engagement. The guns which were used against Fort Sumter were the same which Major Anderson spiked and burned when he abandoned Fort Moultrie.

On the night of the 11th, as hostilities were shortly expected to commence, I made the following disposition of my staff: Major Pagan, Lieutenant Adams, and Lieutenant Pringle to be stationed between Fort Moultrie and Captain Butler's battery, to carry orders to and from these posts and to the brigade of infantry; Major De Saussure to attend me personally, and Captain Bruns to be on detached service at Captain Hallonquist's mortar battery, where he rendered efficient aid during the whole bombardment. Major Evans, who had been confined to his bed by sickness for some days, joined me soon after the battle commenced, and then, as always, exhibited the highest qualifications for the duties of his arduous and responsible post. I am gratified to record that my entire staff acquitted themselves well, and their services to me during the campaign have been invaluable. Although most of them had but little military experience, they have spared no pains to acquaint themselves with the duties of their office, and have, without exception, performed them intelligently, cheerfully, and with dispatch.

During the bombardment, I observed specially the behavior of the troops at Fort Moultrie, and at Captains Butler's and Hallonquist's mortar batteries. At all these posts the energy and spirit displayed alike by officers and men could not be surpassed, I believe, by any troops in the world. The enfilade, Dahlgren, and floating batteries had also a prominent place in the picture, but I must again refer to the reports of the officers commanding these batteries.

I am pleased to mention that Ex-Governor J.L. Manning, Honorable W.P. Miles, and Captain Samuel Ferguson, S.C.A., aides-de-camp to Brigadier-General Beauregard, brought orders to me from the brigadier-general commanding during the hottest of the fire. Major De Saussure of my staff, carried information for the Ordnance Department in regard to the short supply of Dahlgren shells under a brisk fire.

As soon as the white flag was displayed from Fort Sumter on the 13th I sent Captain Hartstene, C.S.N., Captain Calhoun, S.C.A., and Surgeon Lynch, C.S.N., to ascertain whether Major Anderson had surrendered. These officers reported on their return that they had been preceded by some members of your staff.

For the details of this action, which has terminated so happily for the glory of our arms and for the honor to safety of South Carolina, I would respectfully refer you to the report of Lieutenant-Colonel Ripley, and to the reports of the officers under his immediate command.

R.G.M. DUNOVANT,
Brigadier-General, Commanding South Carolina Army.

Major D.R. JONES,
Assistant Adjutant-General.

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No. 10

No. 10 - Report of James Simons (Brigadier General, S.C. Army)

This report from James Simons, Brigadier General of the South Carolina Army, details Confederate operations against Fort Sumter.

April 23, 1861 - Brigadier General James Simons to Brigadier General G.T. Beauregard

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Report of Brigadier General James Simons of operations against Fort Sumter

HEADQUARTERS,
MORRIS ISLAND,
April 23, 1861.

GENERAL: I have the honor respectfully to inform you that the report of Lieutenant-Colonel De Saussure, commanding the battalion of artillery, with the reports of commanders of batteries at this post of the late action of the 12th and 13th instant with Fort Sumter, have this moment been handed to me, and as you are already apprised of my communication of yesterday to Assist. Adjt. General D. R. Jones, this will furnish the reason for my delaying the present address. I have little to add to the minute and circumstantial detail which has been so carefully and minutely furnished by these officers. I add my confirmation to the commendation of the coolness, perseverance and steady zeal of all those who were actively engaged in the action to whom particular as well as general reference has been made in those reports.

The firing commenced on the signal designated in your General Orders Numbers 14, section 4, of date the 11th instant, and conformed substantially to the requisitions of General Orders Numbers 9, of date the 6th instant, both as regards the objects, and the times and the intervals of firing, and the only departure from the rigid compliance with those orders was done by my orders at 11.10 a.m. on the 13th instant, by which, through Colonel Wigfall, whom you had sent to me as a special aid the night before the engagement, I authorized battery commanders to increase the frequency of their fire, but with express directions that the fire should not be so frequent as to waste ammunition. This was continued until 1.30 p.m., when the flag of Fort Sumter fell, but whether by fire or by a ball from our batteries did not then appear. It was certain the colors were not hauled down. I became certain afterwards, on a visit to Fort Sumter, that the flagstaff was shot away, for it bore the marks of many balls. Only two shots were fired from our batteries on this island after the flag fell. I suspended the firing, however, and on a consultation with Ex-Governor Manning, Colonel Chesnut, and Colonel Wigfall, members of your staff, I sent Colonel Wigfall, accompanied by Private Gourdin Young, of Palmetto Guard, with a white flag to Fort Sumter to inform Major Anderson that I observed his flag was down, and to inquire whether he would surrender to you. Colonel Wigfall, with great gallantry and his accustomed indifference to danger, accompanied as I have mentioned, proceeded in a boat in the midst of the continued fire from our batteries other than at this island. Before he reached Fort Sumter I distinctly saw the flag of Fort Sumter flying on the northeast corner of the fortress, but very much masked by the gable of the quarters and the smoke and flame. It was too late to recall Colonel Wigfall, and he accomplished his missing. Soon after he reached the fortress a white flag was substituted for that lately put up, and the firing ceased on both sides. The firing of Fort Sumter had continued after the flag had fallen.

At 2.15 p.m. Colonel Wigfall returned and announced that Major Anderson surrendered unconditionally to Brigadier-General Beauregard, of the C. S. Army. The announcement was received with the greatest enthusiasm, and Colonel Wigfall and Private Young were borne from the boat in triumph by the troops. Colonel Wigfall, accompanied by Ex-Governor Manning, Colonel Chesnut, and Captain Chisolm of your staff, then proceeded to report to you.

In the afternoon, before sundown, a boat from the fleet was brought to by a shot from Lieutenant-Colonel Lamar's battery, and landed Lieutenant Marcy, U. S. Navy. He asked me if I would give him permission to go to Fort Moultrie to inquire whether Major Anderson had surrendered, and whether he and his command could be taken out of the harbor by a vessel of the fleet, or a merchant vessel with them, or by their boats. I replied that so far as it was necessary to go to Fort Moultrie to learn whether Major Anderson had surrendered, I could, and did, give him the information, and so far as the removal of Major Anderson's command out of the harbor was concerned, we could furnish the requisite transportation, but that the commanding general of our army was at hand, and that he would be communicated with, and that Lieutenant Marcy could have the answer at 9 a.m. the next day, at the same place. I sent Captain Ben. Allston to you before dark with a dispatch to this effect, under the signature of Major Whiting. Subsequent events were managed by yourself or under your direction and control.

Besides the batteries actively engaged in the action, I cannot too highly commend the other batteries on the channel. The untiring zeal, watchfulness, and eagerness of the officers and men of the commands to participate in the defense of their country must fill the hearts of their fellow-citizens with the liveliest emotions of gratitude and pride.

I felt constrained to refuse permission to Captain A.J. Green, of Columbia Artillery, and his gallant corps to open fire on Fort Sumter, although he solicited permission to participate in the contest. Whilst the credit of the battle will necessarily be more permanently associated with those who managed the instruments of warfare, I cannot conclude this report without inviting your attention to the infantry. In the midst of the greatest exposure to the most inclement weather, many hundreds bivouacking in the open air without any covering, many more sheltered by wide burrows in the sand hills, not a murmur of complaint escaped during the thirty-three hours of the conflict; but with steady gaze on the fleet, which was ranged outside the harbor, plainly visible to the naked eye, they were ready to resist any hostile demonstration and repulse the invader, whilst their brave comrades of the batteries were engaged in driving the enemy from his strong fortress in our harbor. Commendation from one like myself, entitled from my education and training to no military consideration, is only valuable because it is honest and sincere.

In this sense you will permit me, general, to thank you for the assistants which your wisdom and kindness assigned to aid me in my difficult and trying position. I am almost unwilling to distinguish between them, but the genius and the highest order of intellectual culture of Major Whiting, joined to his indefatigable and untiring energy, sleeplessly exercised both night and day, have entitled him at my hands to the most grateful eulogium.

Claiming no credit for myself, but only the desire to serve my country, I will urgently pray you, general, to pardon in myself all deficiencies which the newness of my situation and the suddenness of my assuming this post may have caused me to develop.

I have the honor to be, general, your obedient servant,

JAMES SIMONS,
Brigadier-General, Commanding.

Brigadier-General BEAUREGARD,
Commanding Provisional Forces, C.S., Charleston.

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No. 11

No. 11 - Report from R.S. Ripley (Lieutenant Colonel, S.C. Army)

This report from R.S. Ripley, a Lieutenant Colonel of the South Carolina Army, details Confederate artillery operations against Fort Sumter.

April 16, 1861 - Lieutenant Colonel Roswell Ripley to Asst. Adj. Gen. David Jones

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Report of Lieutenant Colonel R.S. Ripley, South Carolina Army, commanding Artillery

HEADQUARTERS ARTILLERY,
Sullivan's Island, Fort Moultrie,
April 16, 1861.

MAJOR: I have the honor to report that on the evening of the 11th instant, at 9 1/2 o'clock, the batteries under my command were supplied and manned, the furnace heated, and all was ready for action either against a fleet or Fort Sumter. They were the following:

The five-gun battery, east of Curlew ground, under Captain Tupper, of the Vigilant Rifles.

The Maffitt channel battery, two guns, and mortar-battery Numbers 2, two 10-inch mortars, under Captain Butler, of the Infantry.

Fort Moultrie, which was my headquarters, thirty guns, under Captain W. R. Calhoun, of the Artillery, assistant commandant of batteries; First Lieuts. Thomas Wagner and Alfred Rhett, Artillery, commanding Channel and Sumter batteries.

Mortar-battery Numbers 1, two 10-inch mortars.

The enfilade battery, four guns, under Captain J. H . Hallonquist, Artillery, assistant commandant of batteries, and Lieutenants Flemming Artillery, and Valentine Infantry.

The Point battery, one 9-inch Dahlgren gun, and the floating battery, four guns, under Captain J. R. Hamilton and First Lieutenant Yates, of the artillery, and the Mount Pleasant battery, two 10-inch mortars, under Captain Robert Martin, of the infantry.

Of these three 8-inch columbiads, two 32-pounders, and six 24-pounders in Fort Moultrie; two 24-pounders and two 32-pounders in the enfilade battery; one 9-inch Dahlgren gun, two 32-pounders, two 42-pounders at the Point and on board the floating battery, and the six 10-inch mortars bore upon Fort Sumter.

A strict watch was kept all night, but no attempt to send re-enforcements into Fort Sumter was observed. At 4 1/2 o'clock on the morning of the 12th a shell was seen from the batteries of Fort Johnson, and in accordance with orders the signal for general action was made at once. The command went quickly to their posts, and very soon every battery bearing upon the fort had commenced. As it was still dark the firing was very slow, but after dawn the direct fire was quickened, until every gun which bore upon Sumter was in quick operation, and this was continued at the regular intervals presented throughout the day. The enemy at first only replied to the Cummings Point batteries, but in a short time opened a brisk fire on the Point and floating batteries of this command with great precision. Shortly afterward he commenced firing on the enfilade batteries, but did not open upon Fort Moultrie.

At about 8 o'clock I visited the batteries to the west of this fort, and noticed the admirable conduct of the officers and men. Lieutenant Blanding and Flemming, of the Artillery, at mortar battery Numbers 1, and Lieutenants Valentine and Burnet, of the Infantry, at the enfilade battery, were promptly and energetically performing their duties. Captain Hallonquist was directing his fire to enfilade and drive the enemy from his parapet. At the Point battery Captain J. R. Hamilton was firing with great precision and skill, and from his battery I noticed First Lieutenants Yates and Harleston on board the floating battery working their guns with all the rapidity which the order of firing permitted. I next visited Captain Butler's mortar battery, which he was working energetically.

Fort Sumter opened upon Fort Moultrie about 8.30 o'clock in the morning, and from that time a steady and continuous fire was kept up on us from his casemate 32-pounders and 42-pounders throughout the day. This was replied to by the nine guns of the Sumter battery of this fort, under Lieutenants Rhett and Mitchell, and two guns of the oblique battery, under lieutenant Parker, until 9 a.m., when Lieutenant Rhett's command was relieved by the detachment of Company A, under Lieutenants Wagner, Preston, and Sitgreaves.

Captain Calhoun arranged the reliefs, and the officers and men of Companies A, G, and D worked the Sumter battery of this fort alternately until evening. During this time Captain Calhoun kept his channel guns manned and ready for action against the fleet, which was confidently expected to attempt an entrance. At different times during the afternoon five hot were fired upon the quarters at Fort Sumter. I have learned that they were thrice set on fire. Meantime the enemy's shot had told with great effect upon the quarters of Fort Moultrie, continually perforating and breaking them up; but our defenses were strong, the merlons and traverses heavy and well secured, and no material damage was done to our defenses, although the principal fire of the enemy was directed on this fort during the whole of the afternoon. The direct fire ceased with the light, but the mortars kept up the bombardment at the prescribed intervals.

The night set in dark and rainy, and it was feared that the enemy would certainly attempt to re-enforce. All the batteries on the island were visited, and especial vigilance enjoined. The channel batteries were kept manned, the various enfilading guns were all in readiness to sweep the faces ad landings at Fort Sumter, and the mortar batteries to redouble their fire upon an alarm. The night passed away with one alert, during which the mortar practice was increased in rapidity for a short time, and a few shots were fired from the different batteries; but it becoming apparent that the alarm was groundless the vertical fire was resumed, according to orders, and kept up until the day dawned.

Believing that it was impossible that the fleet outside would permit the cannonade to proceed without an attempt to re-enforce during the day, and the men of my command having been exposed to a pelting rain during the night, and feeling confident that we had perfect command of the enemy's parapet, it had been determined to fire but two or three guns from the Sumter battery of Fort Moultrie, and, while keeping up a brisk mortar practice and fire from the enfilade battery, to save the ammunition of the Point and floating batteries to repel an attempt to re-enforce. Orders were given to such effect, and the two guns were opened from the Sumter battery of this fort, the other batteries firing in order. Fort Sumter opened early and spitefully, and paid especial attention to Fort Moultrie-almost every shot grazing the crest of the parapet, and crashing through the quarters. Our defenses were still uninjured and our losses trifling.

Finding that I could spare men and still keep the channel battery manned, the fire was somewhat increased, until about 9 o'clock on the morning of the 13th smoke was seen to issue from the roof of the quarters of Fort Sumter, and it was evident that a conflagration had commenced. The entire Sumter battery of Fort Moultrie was manned at once, and worked with the utmost rapidity, officers and men viewing in their energy. Captain Calhoun, First Lieutenants Wagner, Rhett, and Preston, Second, Lieutenants Sitgreaves, Mitchell, and Parker, of the Artillery, and Mr. F. D. Blake, acting engineer, all superintended the working of the guns, which were manned by detachments from Company B, relieved at times by detachments from Company A, with a skill, and precision rarely excelled. Indeed, I doubt whether an artillery fire at such a distance with ordinary guns has ever equaled it in precision. The shot, both hot and cold, crashed into the quarters of Fort Sumter and along the parapet, rendering the extinction of the flames difficult, and lighting up new places to windward. It became evident soon that the enemy was worsted, but to insure the result orders were passed to each of the batteries to redouble their fire.

Captain Hamilton, Captain Hallonquist, and Lieutenant Yates, and Valentine had anticipated the order, and Captain Butler soon increased the rapidity of his mortar practice; nevertheless from his casemates the enemy still poured shot thick and fast upon Fort Moultrie until about 12.45 p.m., when his flagstaff was cut away, and it slackened. The thick and stifling smoke arising from the ruins of his buildings told plainly that the time for surrender had nearly come. Nevertheless he hoisted a new flag over the crest of his parapet, and our fire, which had been ordered to cease when his flagstaff fell, was reopened with all the vigor we could command. The smoke still poured out of the ruins, and the fire from Fort Sumter having slackened again the order was again given to cease, but upon his recommencing we reopened.

While the enemy's flag was still flying and he was still firing upon us, a boat was observed to leave Cummings Point and pull towards Fort Sumter. By my order a shot was sent ahead of it, but it continued on and landed.

At 1.15 p.m., a white flag having been hoisted alongside the United States ensign, the firing ceased. Brigadier-General Dunovant, who was present in Fort Moultrie, immediately sent Captain Hartstene, C.S.N., Captain Calhoun, and Surgeon Lynch, C. S. N., to ascertain whether the surrender was made, and to tender assistance. Upon their arrival they found that the staff of the commanding general had just preceded them.

It is hard to say whether any distinction can be made in the conduct of the officers and men under my command. From the senior captain to the prisoner turned out of the guard-house just before the action all did their duty. The conduct of several came under my special notice, and I mention them accordingly. Captains Calhoun and Hallonquist assistants to commandant of batteries; Captain J. R. Hamilton, First Lieutenants Wagner, Rhett, and Yates, and Second Lieutenant Flemming, of the Artillery, and Captain Butler and Lieutenant Valentine, of the Infantry, were all in command of batteries, and deserve especial mention. In addition to the officers whose names appear in the report above I take pleasure in mentioning the conduct of the engineer and assistants, First Lieutenant Earle, and Messrs. F. D. Blake and J. E. Nash, volunteers, acting.

No repairs being needed for the defenses, these gentlemen acted as staff and lookout officers and were very efficient. Lieutenant T. S. Fayssoux, of the Cavalry, assistant commissary of subsistence, acted well in the same capacity. Captain C. F. Middleton, an old resident of Sullivan's Island, remained with his family during the cannonade, and was especially useful. All of these gentlemen were active and prompt in communicating orders and doing whatever duty devolved upon them.

Surg. Arthur Lynch, C. S. N., and Assist. Surg. Walter Taylor, South Carolina Volunteers, the permanent surgeons of the post, had made every preparation for the discharge of their duties, and would have been assisted by Drs. Raoul, Barnwell, and Porcher, who volunteered, but fortunately our casualties were so few that their services as surgeons were needless. They acted as staff officers. The Rev. Mr. Aldrich was present during the cannonade. Dr. Maddow acted as surgeon at mortar battery Numbers 1, and Drs. Daviga and Logan at the Point and on board the floating battery. Mr. John Wells, of South Carolina, acted as an ordnance officer at the Point battery under Captain Hamilton.

Our escape with only four slight casualties, I conceive to be in a great measure due to the strength of our defenses the material of which had been furnished under the direction of Major Walter Gwynn, chief engineer, in large quantities since the 1st of January last. Major Gwynn had also given his personal supervision to the construction of several of the works. The batteries exterior to the fort and many of the works adjacent were built under the superintendence of Captain Trapier, whose accomplishment as an engineer are well known, and certainly are appreciated by those who garrison works constructed by him.

Several times during the action I had the pleasure of meeting the brigadier-general commanding, and of receiving valuable assistance from Captain Bruns and other officers of the staff. I wish to draw particular and special attention to the valuable services of Messrs. John Henery and Charles Scanlan, acting military storekeepers, who have been on duty with my command since January last. These gentlemen have given every attention to their duty, and to them is due, in a great measure, the high state of efficiency of our guns and ordnance. They were indispensable during the action.

The Ordnance Department deserves and has my thanks for the material furnished under so many adverse circumstances since the 1st of January last.

Among other volunteers, Major John Dunovant, of the Infantry, came to Fort Moultrie early on the morning of the 13th, and was present during the action, doing all that lay in his power.

I was deprived of the services of the commissioned battalion staff during the cannonade. First Lieutenant James Hamilton, adjutant, was absent sick on the 11th instant, but hearing of the probability of an engagement, left his bed and came to report for duty. He remained until some time after the action, when it was evident that his strength was gone. Lieutenant Yates, battalion quartermaster, preferred the command of the floating battery, and I excused him from staff duty.

Lieutenant Colonel Hatch, quartermaster-general, had made preparations for the extinguishment of fires. Mr. Prioleau Ravenel was present with the engines and a body of men to put them out should they occur. We were fortunate, and he did what duty he was called on to perform.

I have the honor to inclose a return of the few wounded, a statement of shot fired, and such reports from commanding officers as I have received. To them I beg to refer for the names of meritorious individuals not mentioned above.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R.S. RIPLEY,
Lieutenant-Colonel of Artillery, Commanding.

Return of shot and shell fired from the batteries of Fort Moultrie, Sullivan's Island, and Mount Pleasant, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel R.S. Ripley, Artillery, South Carolina Army, during the cannonade and bombardment of Fort Sumter, April 12 and 13, 1861.

Return of Shot and Shell
Shell. Shot. Hot shot.
10-inch. 9-inch. 8-inch. 64 pounds. 42 pounds. 32 pounds. 24 pounds 32 pounds.
Fort Moultrie ... ... 6 248 ... 305 105 ... ... 41
Enfilade Battery ... ... ... ... ... 300 300 ... ... ...
Point Battery ... 61 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
Floating Battery ... ... ... ... 247 223 ... ... ... ...
Mortar battery No. 1 185 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
Mortar battery No. 2 88 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
Mount Pleasant mortar battery 81 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
Total 354 61 6 248 247 828 405 ... ... 41

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No. 12

No. 12 - Report from Wilmot G. De Saussure (Lieutenant Colonel, S.C. Army)

This report from Wilmot G. De Saussure, a Lieutenant Colonel of the South Carolina Army, details Confederate artillery operations against Fort Sumter.

April 22, 1861 - Lieutenant Colonel Wilmot De Saussure to Brigadier General James Simons

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Report of Lieutenant Colonel Wilmot G. De Saussure, South Carolina Army, commanding Artillery

HEADQUARTERS BATTALION OF ARTILLERY,
Morris Island,
April 22, 1861.

SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the reports of Major P. F. Stevens, of the Citadel Academy, assigned under Special Orders, Numbers 8, from Headquarters Provisional Forces, to the Iron and Point batteries at this post, of Captain George B. Cuthbert, commanding Palmetto Guard, by which corps the above batteries were manned, and of Captain J. G. King, commanding Marion Artillery, by which corps the Trapier battery was manned. These several reports contain the events connected with the bombardment and fall of Fort Sumter, Charleston Harbor, on Friday, 12th, and Saturday, 13th instant, so far as the above-named batteries and corps were engaged.

An unavoidable delay in obtaining these reports has prevented me from earlier reporting to you. From the day on which supplies were cut off from Fort Sumter, on Sunday, 7th April, instant, the vigilance which had watched over the channel unceasingly was, if possible, increased, in order to prevent re-enforcement of men or supplies to the beleaguered fortress. On the afternoon of Thursday, 11th April, instant, I was notified that at a given signal the bombardment would commence, and that the signal might be looked for about 8 p.m. Shortly before that time the Trapier, Iron, and Point batteries were manned, the magazines opened, and the signal awaited.

After keeping the men at the batteries until nearly 10 p.m. they were dismissed to their respective quarters, but warned to turn out immediately upon the signal being given. At 4.30 a.m. of Friday, 12th April, instant, the signal being given, the batteries were promptly manned, and agreeably to the instructions furnished me for the firing of the mortars, the fire was opened on Fort Sumter from the Trapier battery and succeeded by the Point battery. The fire from this post was commenced at 4.48 a.m. and continued from the mortar batteries at the prescribed intervals until past 2 p.m., when, under orders from Headquarters Provisional Forces, the intervals were doubled. Shortly after 5 a.m., and when the early dawn enabled the guns to be properly worked, the fire was commenced from the three 8-inch columbiads in the Iron battery and the two 42-pounders in the Point battery. From the embrasures of the latter the masks had been removed during the night of Thursday, and also from the rifled cannon in position in the Point battery.

Under my instructions the fire from the columbiads and 42-pounders was at the rate of four shot from each gun per hour. This interval was taken with the purpose of not overheating the guns, of not overfatiguing the men, and that the firing, being conducted with great deliberation, should be accurate. The desired purpose was, I believe attained. The guns were chiefly directed to driving the men from the barbette guns of Fort Sumter and to dismount as many guns as possible, and also to drive the men from the casemate guns bearing upon this post. Shortly after 7 a.m. of Friday, the 12th instant, the fire from Fort Sumter was opened on this post, and for a considerable time was more directed here than to any other point around the harbor. One hundred and twenty-four shot were fired at the Iron battery, thirteen of which struck it. I am unable to report the number fired at the Point and Trapier batteries, or at the island and cantonments generally, but for a space of over two hours on Friday a duel was kept up between the Point battery and Fort Sumter, gun answering gun during that time. The fire from the guns was continued until dark. The mortar fire was continued both day and night.

On Saturday morning, 13th April instant, a little before 7 a.m., the tour of the mortars at this post having come round, the mortars were discharged at the appointed intervals, and shortly afterwards smoke was seen issuing from the officers' quarters at Fort Sumter. The smoke increased until about 8 a.m., when the flames burst forth. I believe the fire was communicated from a shell thrown either by the right mortar in the Trapier battery, or the left mortar in the Point battery; the shells from these two mortars fell at or about the same place on the roof of the officers' quarters, and at that time the smoke was first observed from this post. Upon the flames bursting out the rapidity of the fire was increased, in order to spread the flames. Shortly before 10 a.m. Captain King was instructed to drop a shell on the southern end of the eastern barracks, in order to communicate the fire also to it, and his fifth shell passing through the roof at the designated point the fire was spread. The fire from this post was then reduced to the regular intervals, and so continued until 1.30 p.m., at which time, the flagstaff at Fort Sumter being shot away, the fire from this point was ordered to cease until opportunity was given to Major Anderson either to replace his flag, or by not replacing it signify a readiness to treat. The replacement of his flag was not seen from this post, and the fire consequently not resumed. The subsequent events are matters falling under your own orders.

The several reports herewith transmitted speak more fully of individual acts of gallantry than my own position would enable me to do. Of the gallantry of the troops engaged in the action, and of their perfect subordination, I cannot speak in the terms too high. Few, if any, had ever before been under fire, and yet the entire coolness with which the guns were worked, and the accuracy of fire, would have reflected credit upon veterans. The Trapier battery, of three mortars was manned by a portion of the Marion Artillery, under the command of Captain J. Gadsden King, and the immediate direction of the battery assigned by him to Lieuts. W. D. H. Kirkwood and Edward L. Parker. The fire from these mortars appeared to me to be particularly good, a large proportion of the shells bursting over Fort Sumter or within the parade. The pointing of the mortars from this battery was chiefly done by Corporal McMillan King, jr., Privates J. S. Murdock and Robert Murdock, and reflects upon them very great credit. The Sumter Guard, Captain John Russell, acted as a reserve to the Marion Artillery, and were engaged during a part of the bombardment at the battery and also during the night in working in the embrasures at the Point battery and in covering the iron battery in part with sand bags. While thus engaged during the night this company was under fire from Fort Sumter. The remaining portion of the Marion Artillery were on duty at Battery G, a Channel battery, to which were assigned Lieuts. J. P. Strohecker and A. M. Huger. The presence of a fleet of war vessels outside the bar required that this, in common with all the channel batteries, should be keep constantly manned, and upon an alarm excited during the night of Friday by a small boat being seen rowing near the shore, the preparation of this detachment was shown by a fire being immediately opened on the boat. The Iron battery, of three 8-inch columbiads, and the Point battery, of three mortars, two 42-pounders, and one 12-pounder rifled cannon, were manned by the Palmetto Guard, Captain George B. Cuthbert. These two batteries were assigned to the supervision of Major P. F. Stevens. The fire from the Iron battery was under the immediate direction of Captain George B. Cuthbert and Lieutenants Lamb and Buist, and does great credit to their skillful management. The battering from this battery is very marked upon the exterior wall of Fort Sumter, while the accurate practice dismounted, as I believe, two of the barbette guns on the eastern face, and to a considerable degree crippled one gun on the northern and one on the southwestern face.

At about 11 a.m. of Friday the mantelet to the embrasure of gun Numbers 2 was crippled by the lever-arm used in working it breaking from a flaw in the iron, and for some time this gun was unable to be used. The mantelet was subsequently pried open and the gun renewed its fire. The fire from the mortar at the Point battery was conducted under the supervision of Lieutenant N. Armstrong, of the Citadel Academy, assisted by Lieutenant C. R. Holmes, of the Palmetto Guard; and much praise is due to them for the accuracy of their fire. As well as I can judge, this battery competes with the Trapier battery for the honor of throwing into Fort Sumter the largest number of shells thrown from any post in the harbor. The rifled cannon in this battery was under the supervision of Captain J. P. Thomas, of the Citadel Academy, and its accuracy of aim reflected well upon the skill of Captain Thomas, and was a valuable auxiliary in driving the men from their guns. The two 42-pounders were managed by Lieutenant T. Sumter Brownfield, and I cannot speak too highly of their services. Twice on Saturday, 13th instant, I saw the casemate bearing on this post manned, and instructed Lieutenant Brownfield to drive the men away, and in each case the shot striking on the checks of the embrasures drove the men away. The venerable Edmund Ruffin, of Virginia, was at this battery during the greater part of the bombardment, and by his enthusiasm and example greatly incited the men.

To Major P. F. Stevens, of the Citadel Academy, I but do justice in saying that by example, by forethought, by energy, by his skill much of the success from this post was achieved. He is entitled to most honorable mention and to the highest praise.

To the companies manning the channel batteries much praise is due for a vigilance which never slept, and through which everything looking towards a re-enforcement was guarded against. It was confidently believed by me that the channel batteries were far more likely to be engaged than the batteries bearing on Fort Sumter, and until the bombardment commenced I rested upon the troops at these batteries with the firm assurance that they would permit no entrance whatever to the beleaguered fortress, and the patient vigilance and endurance, the more commendable because not being by the fortune of war at the posts of combat on the 12th and 13th instants, when a hostile fleet lay off the harbor and an hourly conflict was expected, cannot be too highly commended. To the Wee Nee Riflemen, Captain J. G. Pressley, Lieutenant A. F. Warley, and the detachment of the Wee Nee Riflemen, Lieutenant Keils under him; the Columbia Artillery, Captain A. J. Green; the German Artillery, Captain C. Nohrden, and Lieutenant Colonel Thomas G. Lamar, with the volunteer detachment under him, I desire to pay the highest commendation for a vigilance unsleeping and untiring. The gallant bearing of these troops while standing as silent spectators of the bombardment evinces that if it had been their good fortune to have been actively engaged they would have rendered for themselves a faithful account.

Without invidious distinction I desire particularly to call to your attention the services of the Columbia Artillery, Captain A. J. Green, which has been on duty unrelieved since 1st Artillery last, and of the German Artillery, Captain C. Nohrden, which, with but short relief, has been on duty since 27th December last. To Captain Green, as the company longest in service, was given the choice of the batteries, and with characteristic gallantry he chose the post which he believed certain of action.

The course of circumstances deprived himself and his brother commanders of the channel batteries from joining in the engagement, while it afforded to their equally gallant but more fortunate brother commanders of the Point batteries the opportunity of being engaged. All were ready and all were gallant, and I desire to speak thus in justice to all. To the valuable services of Sergeant Hamilton and Privates Bugard, McCaa, Brooks, and Riley, of the Columbia Artillery, rendered at the Iron battery in endeavoring to repair the injured mantelet and lever-arm, I ask leave to call attention. I also desire to mention with great commendation the valuable services rendered me by Captain F. D. Lee, Corps of Engineers, assigned by you as a part of my staff, and to whose admirable field works too much praise cannot be awarded; also to Lieutenant J. Ravenel Macbeth, my adjutant, and to Capts. J. Jones and F. L. Childs, assistant commandants of batteries, I desire to call attention for gallantry and cool determination in the extension of orders and for valuable suggestions during the engagement. To Captain P. Gervais Robinson, M. D., Lieutenant R. F. Michael, M. D., my medical staff, and to Drs. F. T. Miles and F. L. Parker, who kindly volunteered their services as surgeons, I am greatly indebted for the thought and care with which they had prepared for the casualties of battle. They were respectively assigned to the several batteries, and during the entire engagement remained at the posts to which so assigned. No casualties, I am glad to say, required their presence; but I am not the less indebted to them, and ask that they may be mentioned with the honor to which they are so justly entitled. To Lieutenant John Rutledge, inspector of ordnance, and to Lieutenant L. C. Williams, of the Ordnance Department, with his valuable sergeants, M. E. Rooney and E. W. Fuller (the latter of whom was specially detached from the Columbia Artillery), I ask to call your particular attention. To the batteries under my command their services were invaluable, and to them I owe, in a very high degree, the efficiency of their fire.

Desiring through you, sir, to express to the commanding general of the Provisional Forces my entire satisfaction with the soldierly deportment and bearing and with the efficient services rendered, as I believe, by the troops under my command,

I have the honor to be, sir, with great respect, your obedient servant,

WILMOT G. DE SAUSSURE,
Lieutenant-Colonel, Commanding Artillery.

Brigadier General JAMES SIMONS,
Commanding Morris Island.


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No. 13

No. 13 - Report from P.F. Stevens (Major, S.C. Army)

These reports from P.F. Stevens, a Major in the South Carolina Army, detail Confederate artillery operations against Fort Sumter from the Point and Iron batteries.

April 13, 1861 - Major Peter Stevens to Lieutenant Colonel Wilmot de Saussure

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Reports of Major P.F. Stevens, commanding Point and Iron batteries

CUMMINGS POINT, MORRIS ISLAND,
April 13, 1861.

COLONEL: I have the honor to report that yesterday morning, about 4 o'clock, a shell having been fired from Fort Johnson, according to instructions I manned my batteries, and, following Captain King's battery, opened fire on Fort Sumter from the mortar battery, which was continued unabatedly night and day until the order was to-day given to cease firing. The Iron battery and the 42-pounder batteries opened their fire during all yesterday, and once during last night, when an alarm was given that re-enforcements were endeavoring to enter the fort. At 5 o'clock this morning the fire was resumed from the Iron and 42-pounder batteries, in conjunction with the fire of the mortar battery.

At about 7.30 a.m. Lieutenant Armstrong, in charge of the mortar battery, reported to me that he had thrown a shell which broke into the roof of Fort Sumter about the southwest angle and exploded therein. He immediately pointed out the post, from which the smoke of the explosion had not yet ceased to issue. The smoke from this point continued to arise and increase in volume, until about 8 o'clock the flame broke out, and soon enveloped the south roof. I immediately ordered my batteries to quicken their fire, and a rapid volley was poured from all my batteries (mortars and heavy guns) for nearly three-quarters of an hour. I think the fire from every battery under my command was most ably directed, and contributed greatly to increase and spread the flames, which soon spread from roof to roof, causing the explosion of shells and hand grenades on the different parapets and greatly injuring the works. The fire having partly expended its fury, my fire was slackened by your order, and continued very much at the rates prescribed in orders until about 1 o'clock, when the flagstaff of Fort Sumter fell, seemingly shot away. The fire was then stopped by order of the commanding general, and not resumed from my batteries, Major Anderson subsequently having surrendered, about 2 p.m.

It is impossible for me to particularize the individual officers or men who behaved well during this action; but I think great credit due to the effective fire of guns directed by officers and men, who, with the exception of the officers of the Military Academy, had never until two or three weeks since undertaken to manage artillery. Captain Cuthbert, of the Palmetto Guard, assisted by Lieutenant Buist, had especial charge of the Iron battery with its three 8-inch columbiads; Lieutenant Armstrong, of the South Carolina Military Academy, assisted by Lieutenant R. Holmes, of the Palmetto Guards, had charge of the three 10-inch mortars of the Point battery; Lieutenant T. Sumter Brownfield, of the "Guard," had charge of the 42-pounders, and Captain J. P. Thomas, of the Citadel Academy, had command of the Blakely rifled cannon. For some two hours yesterday a heavy fire was directed against my batteries, but with very little effect, and absolutely no loss of life. The Iron battery was struck several times with little damage, the balls glancing and making little impression. Several shot were split, upon striking the same. Early in the day one heavy shot struck the upper end of the shutter of embrasure Numbers 2. The plates of boiler-iron composing the same were considerably bent, or rather indented, by the blow, even splitting the plate through. The shot, however, was completely turned, and no real damage would have been experienced had it not been for a flaw in the lever-arm which maneuvered the shutter. This lever, to sustain a heavy weight as a counterpoise to the shutter, and having a large flaw (not before seen) just in the bend of the arm, was broken by the jar of the blow. The shutter was afterwards propped up, and the fire of the gun continued with great effect this morning. The sand battery was a most effectual screen for the guns it covered, and is absolutely uninjured by the fire of Fort Sumter. The rifled cannon being but limitedly supplied with ammunition could do little, but its few shots were skillfully directed by Captain Thomas.

I have the honor, sir, to congratulate you upon the share in this great success and victory to which the troops under your command are entitled.

Very respectfully,

P.F. STEVENS,
Major, Commanding Point and Iron Batteries.

Lieutenant-Colonel DE SAUSSURE,
Commanding Battalion Artillery.

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April 18, 1861 - Major Peter Stevens to Adjutant General David Jones

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Reports of Major P.F. Stevens, commanding Point and Iron batteries

SUPERINTENDENT'S OFFICE, CITADEL ACADEMY,
April 18, 1861.

MAJOR: Upon my return to this post I found the accompanying letter, which had been written to me by Captain G.B. Cuthbert during my temporary absence from Morris Island.*

Sergeant Bissell did not exactly "cripple the gun of the left casemate," as a subsequent examination has proven, but Lieutenant Colonel De Saussure stated to me that Captain Seymour had informed him that our fire was so severe against the casemates bearing on my batteries that the men were driven out; and this fact is confirmed by my own observation-that the fire from said casemates ceased about 2 o'clock on Friday, and was never renewed, although on Saturday my glass showed me some men in one of the casemates about to fire, as I thought. Immediately I ordered the two 42-pounders and Bissell's 64-pounder to fire at the casemate, and the men within disappeared from sight.

Added to the names of Phillips and Campbell as working in the magazine, I must mention McLane and Macbeth, working in the shell magazine. To my knowledge McLane never left his magazine from the firing of the first shell to the surrender of the fort. The captain is a little in error in attributing the accident to the shutter of the middle gun in the Iron battery to the recoil of the gun. In my report to Lieutenant-Colonel De Saussure you will find it correctly attributed to a shot from Fort Sumter. I most cheerfully agree with the captain in his praise of the gallant conduct of the men who came for the tools and materials to repair the broken lever, but I would not detract from their praise in mentioning that the heavy weights of the shutter and its counterbalance again deranged the lever-bar, so that during Saturday's engagements it was necessary to prop up the shutter, and fire with it thus open the whole day.

The incident alluded to in reference to Mr. Lining, the judge-advocate of the Seventeenth Regiment, was as follows: Mr. Lining was erecting the flag of the Palmetto Guard on the traverse in rear of the Iron battery when the first shot from Fort Sumter passed within a few feet of him. The captain, thinking the position too exposed for the flag, directed it to be transferred to the traverse on the right (at least that is my impression). Certainly Mr. Lining removed the flag, amid the rush and hiss of several balls flying near him, planted it securely on the traverse to the right, and descended amid the plaudits of his comrades. In all respects, save what I have here mentioned, I fully indorse Captain Cuthbert's communication, and am obliged to him for the facts recalled to my memory.

There is one somewhat remarkable incident which I beg leave here to record. On Thursday evening our camp was thrown into considerable excitement by the report that the demand was to be made for the surrender of the fort, and when it was reported that a white flag had been sent to Sumter our batteries were all manned, and the men in eager expectation were watching the fort. I was standing on the traverse closing the left flank of the Iron battery. A number of men were around me. Suddenly the United States flag on Fort Sumter was seen to split in two distinct parts, dividing from the front edge to the back just along the lower extremity of the "Union." I remarked to the men around me, "I wonder if that is emblematical?" Several remarked that it appeared ominous. For several moments the flag flew in this condition, when it was hauled down and another flag raised in its stead.

Very respectfully,

P.F. STEVENS,
Major and Superintendent, Citadel Academy.

Major D.R. JONES,
Adjutant-General.

* Not found.

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No. 14

No. 14 - Report from R. Martin (Captain, S.C. Army)

This report from Robert Martin, a Captain in the South Carolina Army, details Confederate artillery operations against Fort Sumter from the Mount Pleasant mortar battery.

April 17, 1861 - Captain Robert Martin to Brigadier General G.T. Beauregard

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Report of Captain R. Martin, commanding Mount Pleasant mortar battery

MOUNT PLEASANT MORTAR BATTERY,
April 17, 1861.

GENERAL: I have the honor to submit the inclosed report of practice at battery under my command.* Probably you will see I fired faster than ordered. Captain Ferguson can inform you that Colonel Ripley allowed me to fire faster. The officers and men are in good condition, though much mortified and not being noticed by Major Anderson. After the forty-eighth shot the fort was seen to be on fire, and the excitement was so great no account was kept of the shots. I think we fired about ten shells more.

I am, sir, your most obedient servant,

R. MARTIN,
Captain, Commanding.

Brigadier General P.G.T. BEAUREGARD, C.S.A.,
Commanding Forces about Charleston, S.C.

P.S. - Lieutenant F.H. Robertson, of the Confederate Army, was of great use to me. He was prompt and energetic in the discharge of his duties, and was fully competent to the part assigned him by your order. I cannot close without mentioning the services of Lieutenant George N. Reynolds, of the Confederate States Army, who acted as ordnance officer. He showed an intimate acquaintance with his duties, and discharged them well. In fact, all the officers behaved coolly, although under no trial but that of excitement.

I am, general, your obedient servant,

R. MARTIN.

* Omitted as unimportant.

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No. 15

No. 15 - Report from William Butler (Captain, S.C. Army)

This report from William Butler, a Captain in the South Carolina Army, details Confederate artillery operations against Fort Sumter from the Mortar #2 battery on Sullivan's Island.

April 16, 1861 - Captain William Butler to Brigadier General Samuel Cooper

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Report of Captain William Butler, commanding mortar battery No. 2, Sullivan's Island

MORTAR BATTERY, No. 2,
SULLIVAN'S ISLAND,
April 16, 1861.

SIR: I have the honor to submit my report upon the service of the mortars under my charge during the bombardment of Fort Sumter on the 12th and 13th instant.

On the night of the 11th the gunners were detailed and at their posts, the mortar pointed, and the battery prepared for immediate action. The following morning the signal for hostilities to commence being announced both from Forts Johnson and Moultrie, we opened fire from this battery upon Fort Sumter. The prescribed intervals for firing were observed, until varied by verbal orders from the lieutenant-colonel commanding, directing me to shorten them, when an increased rate of firing was commenced and continued until dark.

During the night the rate of firing was reduced to one shell in two to three hours, but was again renewed the next morning at the increased rate of the day before, and continued until about noon, when the signal for surrender was observed and the firing ceased.

The channel battery, though not called into use, was kept manned and ready for action. The fire of the enemy, which was not at any time concentrated in this direction, was apparently pointed for the channel, battery, and did no damage except to some of the adjacent houses, the shot generally passing over us.

The officers under my command, Lieutenants Huguenin, Mowry, Blocker, Billings, and Rice, rendered efficient assistance, performing the duties assigned them with zeal and coolness. The men manned the batteries both night and an with alacrity and cheerfulness. I inclose a summary of the firing.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

WM. BUTLER,
Captain, South Carolina Infantry.

ADJUTANT,
Fort Moultrie.

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No. 16

No. 16 - Report from W.R. Calhoun (Captain, S.C. Army)

This report from William R. Calhoun, a Captain in the South Carolina Army, details Confederate artillery operations against Fort Sumter from the Sumter battery at Fort Moultrie.

April 17, 1861 - Captain W.R. Calhoun to Lieutenant Colonel Roswell Ripley

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Report of Captain W.R. Calhoun, commanding Sumter battery, Fort Moultrie

FORT MOULTRIE, S.C.,
April 17, 1861.

SIR: I have the honor to report concerning the bombardment of Fort Sumter on the 12th and 13th instants by the Sumter battery at Fort Moultrie.

The fire was opened at 4.30 by Lieutenants Rhett and Mitchell, from the second detachment of Company B, Battalion of Artillery. Lieutenants Wagner, Preston, and Sitgreaves, with the whole of Company A, manned the channel battery, to be ready to open fire in the event of the United States fleet attempting to relieve Fort Sumter, and Lieutenant C. W. Parker, with three detachments of Company D, manned the oblique battery.

The fire on Fort Sumter was kept up until 6 p.m., with satisfactory results, by detachments from Companies A, B, and D, arranged in reliefs, as was considered necessary or advisable. At 6 p.m. the fire from the Sumter battery ceased, and was resumed at 7 a m. on the 13th. The fire continued until the surrender of Fort Sumter, under the direction of Lieutenants Wagner, Rhett, Preston, Sitgreaves, Parker, and Mitchell, and Mr. F.D. Blake, aiding and volunteering as lieutenant. All officers and men discharged their duties gallantly and efficiently, and in manner never surpassed under similar circumstances.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

W.R. CALHOUN,
Captain, &c.

Lieutenant Colonel R.S. RIPLEY,
Chief of Artillery.

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No. 17

No. 17 - Report from J.H. Hallonquist (Captain, S.C. Army)

This report from James H. Hallonquist, a Captain in the South Carolina Army, details Confederate artillery operations against Fort Sumter from the mortar and enfilading batteries.

April 17, 1861 - Captain James Hallonquist to Lieutenant Colonel Roswell Ripley

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Report of Captain J.H. Hallonquist, commanding mortar and enfilading batteries

FORT SUMTER,
April 17, 1861.

COLONEL: I have the honor to submit the following report of the mortar and enfilading batteries which I commanded during the recent bombardment of Fort Sumter:

Owing to the fact that during the day I considered my personal attention due more to the enfilading battery than to the mortars, I was chiefly at the guns of the latter [former], but during the night I saw that your orders relative to rate of firing were carried out. For a detailed account, therefore, of the mortar battery I would refer to the report of Captain Bruns to myself. I would call attention to the zeal and energy displayed by Captain Bruns, Lieutenants Fleming and Blanding, who worked at the guns during the whole time exposed to the heavy rains which fell on the morning and night of the 12th. I can say no more than that they performed their duties as became South Carolinians. Lieutenant Flemming commanded. Sergeants O'Grady and Wheat and Private Harlan, of Company B, wee also untiring in the performance of their duty.

On the morning of the 12th the enfilading battery opened fire immediately after mortar battery Numbers 1. Their rate of firing was at first much more rapid than that established, but he fire was slackened first to four, then to sic and eight, minutes' interval between each gun. Mu principal object of the fire from this battery was to dismount the guns on the right and left faces of Fort Sumter exposed to an enfilading fire. The battery during the 12th and the morning of the 13th was the recipient of quite a heavy fire from Sumter, chiefly from his 32-pounders in casemate One shell from his barbette battery burst over the parapet, but injuring no one. There was more danger from the splinters of the wooden houses near by, which at every discharge were scattered over the men at the guns. At 10 1/2 o'clock on the 12th I open da ricochetting fire on the western front of Fort Sumter, as it was supposed that re-enforcements were passing in. From this battery six hundred shots were fired-one hundred and twenty-five to each gun.

I would respectfully call your attention to the excellent conduct of all the officers and men of Company K, Infantry Battalion. Lieutenants Valentine and Burnet were always in the right place at the right moment, and assisted me greatly in the management of the battery. For a report by name of the non-commissioned officers and men I would respectfully refer to Lieutenant Valentine, commanding the camp.

Charles Farelly, a citizen of Charleston, was untiring and active in the performance of his volunteer duty. I neglected above to refer to the good conduct of Corporal Smith at the mortar battery. He is reported by Lieutenant Flemming, commanding, as deserving the greatest praise for his general behavior during the bombardment.

Respectfully submitted.

J.H. HALLONQUIST.

R. S. RIPLEY,
Colonel.

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No. 18

No. 18 - Report from Thomas M. Wagner (Lieutenant, S.C. Army)

This report from Thomas M. Wagner, a Lieutenant in the South Carolina Army, details Confederate artillery operations against Fort Sumter from the channel battery.

April 18, 1861 - Captain Thomas Wagner to Captain W.R. Calhoun

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Report of Lieutenant Thomas M. Wagner, commanding channel battery

FORT MOULTRIE,
April 18, 1861.

SIR: I have the honor to report that on the signal for the attack on Fort Sumter on the morning of the 12th instant, at 4 1/2 o'clock, the company went to battery, every man present. Thirteen guns ont eh channel battery were manned; a detachment of six men were placed int he magazine, under Mr. Scanlon, and the hot-shot furnace put under Corporal Marshall, with four men. Eight detachments relieved Company B from Sumter battery from 9 o'clock to 11 and from 1 to 3 on Friday, and from 12 to the end of the firing on Saturday. Detachments from Company A were engaged during both days in supplying the hot shot for the guns. The officers were at Sumter battery during the whole engagement.

The conduct of both men and officers under me deserves the highest commendation. All behaved so well that it would be invidious to mention names. I beg to ask that the thanks of the officers of this command may be tendered to Mr. F. Blake, who volunteered to assist the officers in the arduous duties devolving upon them on account of the smallness of their numbers. The zeal, ability, and gallantry displayed by him deserve the highest commendation.

The men who were at the battery during the night of the 12th were exposed to a violent storm, but submitted with cheerfulness to all their hardships. During the whole engagement the channel battery was manned, ready for the fleet.

I have the honor to be, your obedient servant,

THOMAS M. WAGNER,
First Lieutenant Company A, Bat. Art., S.C.A.

W.R. CALHOUN,
Captain Company A, Bat. Art., S.C.A.

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No. 19

No. 19 - Report from Alfred Rhett (Lieutenant, S.C. Army)

This report from Alfred Rhett, a Lieutenant in the South Carolina Army, details the command of a detachment of the South Carolina Army / Battalion Artillery / Company B.

April 18, 1861 - Lieutenant Alfred Rhett to Lieutenant Colonel Roswell Ripley

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Report of Lieutenant Alfred Rhett, commanding detachment Company B, Battalion Artillery, South Carolina Army

FORT SUMTER,
April 17, 1861.

SIR: I have the honor to draw your attention to the coolness and meritorious conduct of the following non-commissioned officers and privates of Company B, under my command, displayed during the recent bombardment of Fort Sumter: Sergeants Schaffer and Edwards, Corporals Fullum and Pettigru, and Privates McGill and Randall. The whole command, indeed, behaved well.

I have the honor to remain, colonel, very respectfully,

ALFRED RHETT,
First Lieutenant, Commanding Detachment Company B.

Lieutenant Colonel R.S. RIPLEY.

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No. 20

No. 20 - Report from Jacob Valentine (Lieutenant, S.C. Army)

This report from Jacob Valentine, a Lieutenant in the South Carolina Army, details Confederate artillery operations against Fort Sumter from the enfilading battery.

??? - Lieutenant Jacob Valentine to Lieutenant Colonel Roswell Ripley

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Report of Lieutenant Jacob Valentine, commanding enfilading battery

DEAR SIR: According to General Orders Numbers 20 I send a report of the firing from and against the enfilade battery and the conduct of the officers and men under my command. Number of shots fired from battery, 611. The object of our firing was to sweep the crest of the parapet, the roofs of the quarters within Fort Sumter, to dismount the barbette guns, if practicable, and to drive the enemy from the parapet. The latter object was accomplished. At this distance it is impossible to discern accurately the result of the firing. The firing from Fort Sumter against our battery was heavy, but, I am happy to say, ineffectual, and resulted in neither injury to the battery or to the men.

I take great pleasure in bringing to your notice Lieutenant B.S. Burnet, who, from the commencement to the last, was teary at his post, giving all necessary orders, and by his example gave double courage to the men under my command. I would also mention First Sergeant P. Cummings, Fourth Corporal G. Kay; also Privates Tracy, Stewart, Grant, Rawlins, Wheelis, Keen, Cody, Dwyer, and, indeed, the whole company, with but few exceptions, performed their duty to my entire satisfaction.

I cannot close my report without favorable mention a volunteer (Charles Farelly), who in the working of the guns rendered us material service.

I am, colonel, your very obedient servant,

JACOB VALENTINE,
Lieutenant, Commanding Enfilade Battery.

Colonel R.S. RIPLEY.

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No. 21

No. 21 - Reports from G.B. Cuthbert (Captain, Palmetto Guard Infantry)

These reports from George B. Cuthbert, a Captain in the South Carolina Army, detail Confederate artillery operations against Fort Sumter from the batteries manned by the Palmetto Guard Infantry.

April 17, 1861 - Captain George Cuthbert to Lieutenant Colonel Wilmot de Sassure

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Reports of Captain G.B. Cuthbert, Palmetto Guard, South Carolina Infantry

PALMETTO GUARD ENCAMPMENT,
Morris Island,
April 17, 1861.

DEAR SIR: In the report which I now make I propose to give an account of the most prominent incidents connected with the batteries manned by the Palmetto Guard, and which transpired during the engagement which took place on the 12th and 12th instant. I will also take occasion to mention the names of those who particularly distinguished themselves by their courage and efficiency. In conclusion I shall render you a statement of the number of shells and solid shot fired from the above-mentioned batteries.

The mortar battery at Cummings Point opened fire on Fort Sumter in its turn, after the signal shell from Fort Johnson, having been preceded by the mortar batteries on Sullivan's Island and the mortar battery of the Marion Artillery.

At the dawn of day the Iron battery commend its work of demolition. The first shell from columbiad Numbers 1, fired by the venerable Edmund Ruffin, of Virginia, burst directly upon the parapet of the southwest angel of the fort. After the first round the Iron battery continued firing at regular intervals of fifteen minutes, in accordance with the orders of General Beauregard. The mortar battery continued during the day in the order prescribed.

At 7 o'clock a. m. Major Anderson fire his first shot. This way directed at the Iron battery. The ball passed a few feet above the upper bolts of the shed. The enemy continued firing at too great an elevation until the sixth shot, which fell harmlessly upon the upper portion of the shed, between the embrasures Numbers 2 and Numbers 3. At 9 o'clock a. m. columbiad Numbers 1 became disabled by the recoil of the piece, which broke the bolts connecting the cabins with the epaulement. This damage was repaired, however, after the expiration of an hour. At 10 o'clock a. m. columbiad Numbers 2, being aimed at the 10-inch columbiad bearing upon the Iorn battery from the parapet of the southwest angle, was fired with such precision as to dismount the grim monster. A few minutes afterwards the window of columbiad Numbers 2 was struck near the center by a 42-pounder shot, which shattered the bolts and scattered the fragments between the cannoneers. The proper working of this windows, however, was not interfered with by this occurrence, but in a half hour after this columbiad recoiled with such violence as to brake the laver-bar by which the window was lifted. This casualty prevented the use of this gun until the following morning, several engineers being engaged for the purpose of repairing it. After the second shot from the same place, and, until the surrender, columbiad No. 2 was fought with its shutter open permanently. The fire of the Iron battery was directed during the first day at the guns in barbette and those in the casemates. Major Anderson directed his fire for four consecutive hours, from 7 to 11 o'clock a . m., at the Iron battery, striking it seven times. he then pointed his guns at the mortar battery of Cummings Point, and making no impression upon the unbroken wall of sand he turned his attention to the 42-pounders, thrusting at successive intervals their muzzles along the sides of their palmetto embrasures. At 4 o'clock p. m. the gunners at Fort Sumteer ceased firing towards Morris Island, the batteries pointing in that direction being completely silenced. The rifled cannon did great execution, two of its balls passing entirely through the walls of Fort Sumter.

On the morning of the 13th we attempted to breach with our columbiads by concentrating our fire upon a point to the right of the sallyport, intending thus to effect another object at the same time, viz, by the ricochet of the ball to beat away the traverse of granite, which had ben built up for the purpose of protecting the doorway from and enfilading fire. We had fired but a few shots when a shell from the mortar battery at Cummings Point fell upon the northwestern portion of the roof of the fort. After the lapse of some minutes we perceived the smoke issuing from that quarter. Soon flames burst upward. From that moment until the flagstaff was shot down seven-second shells were fired rapidly from the Iron battery, aimed in such a manner as to scatter the flame and to increase the fury of the conflagration. I refer you, dear sir, to the marks of shot and shell upon the outer and interior walls of the fort to enable you to form an adequate idea of the accuracy with which the columbiads, the mortars, the rifled cannon, the 42-pounders of the Cummings Point batteries were aimed and fired.

The posts of the officers of the Palmetto Guard were as follows: Captain Cuthbert commanded and directed the fire of the Iron battery; First Lieutenant Holmes, assisted by Lieutenant Armstrong, of the Citadel Academy commanded the mortar battery; Second Lieutenant Brownfield commanded and directed the fire of the 42-pounders; Captain Thomas, of the Citadel Academy, with a squad of the Palmetto Guard, had charge of the rifled cannon; to Major Stevens was assigned the post of suprinteding the working of all these batteries, and he was so recognized; Lieutenant Buist acted as gunner to Numbers 3 columbiad during the greater part of the engagement, aiming many of his shots very accurately.

Lieutenants Holmes, Brownfield, and Buist behaved throughout the conflict with distinguished courage and gallantry. Major Stevens, Captain Thomas, and Lieutenant Armstrong, by their coolness, bravery, and skill, gave the highest evidence of their long military training. Lieutenant Brownfield's 42-pounders were fired with great precision, and to his industry and pride in his battery is attributable the fine working condition of his guns. To Mrs. Phillips and Mr. Campbell much praise is due for their untiring devotion to their particular department of the magazine stores In the Iron battery, Orderly sergeant Bissell aimed many a capital shot at the casemates, and the two Sergeants Webb at the paper. Bissell crippled the gun of the left casemate, bearing directly upon the Iron battery, and Seg. L. S. Webb dismounted the 10-inch columbiad upon the parapet. Second Sergeant Bissell and mr. Farelly also made some good shots. At the 42-pounders Sergeant Drownfield, Corporals Rhett, Wright, and Dwyer distinguished themselves as gunners. At the mortar battery Sergeant Gaillard, Corporals Robinson, Zalam, Brailijon, and Rhett did good service as gunners. Captain Stephen Elliott, of the Beaufort Artillery, was present during the action on the 12th instant, and aimed several good shots.

On the same day when columbiad Numbers 2 was silence din consequence of the serious accident referred to above, to repair the damage it became necessary to send forthwith to Charleston to procure the proper materials and implements. Privates Touche, Crakseys, and Alrains volunteered to go in an open boat, under heavy fire from Fort Sumter and Fort Johnson. They went, and succeeded in accomplishing their errand. A sand bag on the first day of the engagement seriously interfered with the working of the windows of columbiad Numbers 1. Private Allison volunteered to extricate the troublesome impediment. While engaged in the performance of this important service a ball from on of the casemates of Fort Sumter passed directly over him, striking the iron shed. He removed the bag and returned to his post.

The sang-froid of Mr. Lining, the judge-advocate of the Seventeenth Regiment, who served as a private during the engagement, has already received employ commendation in the public prints. I can vouch for the truth of the incident, having been an eye witness. (Please incorporate the report of the Courier in relation to the circumstance.)

The appointment of the Palmetto Guard to the occupation of Fort Sumter for one night was the highest compliment ever bestowed upon any volunteer corps in the history of our State, and that event will always be held by them in grateful remembrance. Upon reaching the stronghold, however, their labors were not yet finished. I wish to take no laurels from the brows of the members of the fire-engine companies of Charleston, but truth requires that I should state that, from the moment of their being disbanded within the walls of the fort the Palmetto Guard worked incessantly at the engines until after midnight.

A proper respect for the memory of the dead, as well as the desire to put on record a noble act, induces me recount the following fact: Immediately before the departure of the Palmetto Guard for Fort Sumter, Sergeant Webb, Corporal Robinson, and Private Mackay placed a neat and appropriate head-piece over the grave of the unfortunate how, the first victim of the sad explosion which took place while Major Anderson was engaged in saluting his flag. The performance of this sacred duty did credit to their generous hearts, and proved that Carolina chivalry exists only in combination with a spirit of reverence and magnanimity. I am proud of the opportunity of stating that all of the members of the company conducted themselves nobly and bravely in the fight. Nor will those whose names have not been mentioned in this report object to the particular honorable notice of their gallant comrades.

Statement of ammunition expended upon Fort Sumter from the Iron battery: Shell, 60; solid shot, 183.

Ammunition expended from the other batteries of Cummings Point: Mortars, 197 shell; 42-pounders, 33 solid-shot, 3 grape-shot; rifled cannon, 11 shot, 19 shell.

With increased admiration for your own individual courage and efficiency on these two eventful days, I remain, dear sir, your obedient servant,

G.B. CUTHBERT,
Captain Palmetto Guard.

W.G. DE SAUSSURE,
Colonel, Commanding Battalion of Artillery.

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April 20, 1861 - Captain George Cuthbert to Lieutenant Colonel Wilmot de Sassure

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Reports of Captain G.B. Cuthbert, Palmetto Guard, South Carolina Infantry

PALMETTO GUARD ENCAMPMENT,
Morris Island, April 20, 1861.

DEAR SIR: I write to make an addition to the report which you received yesterday. Please incorporate the following:

Private Gourdin Young volunteered to accompany Colonel Wigfall in a small boat when the latter gentleman was instructed to proceed to Fort Sumter on the fall of the United States flag, for the purpose of inquiring into the cause of that circumstance and to propose a surrender of the fortification. During the passage from Morris Island, amid an incessant fire of shell and grape, he displayed that coolness and determination characteristic of a true South Carolinian. Upon his return he was borne upon the shoulders of his fellow-comrades to the Iron battery.

With great respect, I remain yours, very truly,

G.B. CUTHBERT.

Colonel W.G. DE SAUSSURE.

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No. 22

No. 22 - Report from J. Gadsden King (Captain, Marion Artillery)

This report from J. Gadsden King, a Captain in the South Carolina Army, details Confederate artillery operations against Fort Sumter by the Marion Artillery.

(?) - Captain J. Gadsden King to Colonel Wilmot de Sassure

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Report of Captain J. Gadsden King, commanding Marion Artillery

SIR: In accordance with your order I beg to report that the Trapper battery on Morris Island, which was manned by the Marion Artillery, under my command, open fire on Fort Sumter at 4 a. m. of Friday, the 12th instant, and continued firing in its turn, at the rate of one shell from each mortar, or three from the battery, every thirty-two minutes, until about 2 o'clock p. m., when the order was given to slack the fire and to fire at double the intervals, or at in interval of four minutes between each mortar in the harbor, which was obeyed until dark, or 7 o'clock, when the firing was reduced to a shell every twenty minutes until 4 1/2 a. m. of Saturday, the 13th instant, when the fire was resumed at the rate of a shell every four minutes until the fort was set on fire by a shell fired form the mortar Numbers 3 of the battery worked by my command, upon which the fire was quickened by order of Colonel Wigfall, an aid of General Beauregard, until the fort was in flames, at which time I was ordered to slacken the fire and to fire at the rate of one shell every four minutes as before, until it was seen that the west and south buildings of the for alone were going to burn, upon which your ordered me to increase my fire and to drop my shell upon the eastern buildings of the fort, in order to set them on fire. This I tire dot do, and at the fifth discharge from my mortars the mortar Numbers 2 of my battery dropped a shell through the roof of the eastern quarters, as I had ordered, and so set them on fire, thus burning the quarters.

On Friday I twice thought that shells from my battery set the fort on fire, but I am not sure. During the burning of the fort I had the fuse of my shells cut to its full length, so as to allow the shells to fall and explode in the interior of the fort. The fire was kept up until the flag of Fort Sumter was either burned or shot down, when it was stopped by your order.

The total number of shell fired by the Marion Artillery was one hundred and seventy, of which I feel sure that at least three-fourths either burst on the ramparts or in the fort itself.

Where all behaved so well it is impossible to discriminate between any of them, but I deem it my duty to mention the names of my officers, Lieuts. W. D. H. Kirkwood, J. P. Strohecker, A. M. Huger, and E. L. Parker; Lieutenant Kirkwood and Parker having had immediate charge of the mortars. I also deem it my duty to mention the names of my three gunners, Corporal McMillan King and Privates J. S. and Robert Murdock, who aimed every mortar that was fired from the battery from the beginning of the firing until its close, a period of thirty-four hours, day and night. My thanks are due to the detachment of fifteen men from the Sumter Guards, Captain John Russell, for services rendered during the last three hours of the bombardment.

My warmest thanks and greatest approbation are due to my whole command for the prompt and cheerful manner in which they obeyed every order.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. GADSDEN KING,
Captain First Artillery, S.C.M., Commanding Marion Artillery.

Lieutenant Co. W.D. DE SAUSSURE,
Commandant of Batteries.

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No. 23

No. 23 - Report from J. E. McP. Washington (Lieutenant, S.C. Army)

This report from J.E.McP. Washington, a Lieutenant in the South Carolina Army, details Confederate artillery operations against Fort Sumter from Fort Johnson.

April 13, 1861 - 2nd Lieutenant J.E.Mcp. Washington to ?

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Report of Lieutenant J.E.McP. Washington, Battalion of Artillery, South Carolina Army

CHARLESTON,
April 13, 1861.

Fort Johnson.-12.45, flagstaff struck; 1.5, United States flag, Union down, with white flag above. Officer seen on southwest anger with white flag, waved repeatedly. A few moments afterwards a sergeant and twelve men recognized on the parapet. One mortar fired from upper battery before the white flag on Sumter was discovered. Going to Fort Sumter. All firing stopped.

Respectfully,

J.E. MCP. WASHINGTON,
Second Lieutenant, Battalion of Artillery, South Carolina Army.

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No. 24

No. 24 - Reports from C.W. Parker (Lieutenant, 1st South Carolina Artillery)

These reports from C.W. Parker, a 2nd Lieutenant in the 1st South Carolina Artillery, detail Confederate artillery operations against Fort Sumter.

(?) - 2nd Lieutenant C.W. Parker to Captain W.R. Calhoun

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Reports of Lieutenant C.W. Parker, Company D, First Artillery, South Carolina Army

SIR: In accordance with orders received from Headquarters South Carolina Army, I have the honor to submit the annexed report of duty performed by the detachment of Company D under my command during the action of the 12th and 13th instants.

Hoping that the efficient, arduous, and willing services rendered by the men may merit your approbation, I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

C.W. PARKER,
Second Lieutenant, Company D.

Captain W.R. CALHOUN,
Commanding Batteries at Fort Moultrie.

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(?) - 2nd Lieutenant C.W. Parker to ?

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Reports of Lieutenant C.W. Parker, Company D, First Artillery, South Carolina Army

The detachments of Company D, First Artillery, South Carolina Army, Lieutenant Parker commanding, served at Fort Moultrie during the action of the 12th and 13th instants, a follows, viz:

Oblique battery.-April 12, from 9 a.m. to 12 1/2 p.m. April 13, from 9 a.m. to 12 1/2 p.m.

Sumter battery.-April 12, from 3 p.m. to 5 1/4 p.m.

Number of shot and shell fired.-From oblique battery, 110 solid-shot and 5 shell; from Sumter battery, 40 solid-shot.

C.W. PARKER,
Second Lieutenant, Commanding Detachment Company D.

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No. 25

No. 25 - Joint Reports (Confederate Army)

These reports from James Chesnut (Jr.), A.R. Chisolm (Lieutenant), S.D. Lee (Captain), and Messrs. John L. Manning, William Porcher Miles, and Roger A. Pryor, aides-de-camp of the Confederate Provisional forces, detail Confederate artillery operations against Fort Sumter.

April 11, 1861 - James Chesnut (Jr.) et al to Major D.R. Jones

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Joint reports of James Chestnut (Jr.), Lieutenant Colonel A.R. Chisolm, Captain S.D. Lee, and Messrs. John L. Manning, William Porcher Miles, and Roger A. Pryor, aides-de-camp

HEADQUARTERS PROVISIONAL FORCES, C.S.A.,
Charleston, S.C.,
April 11, 1861.

SIR: In obedience to the orders of Brigadier-General Beauregard, we left headquarters at 2.20 p. m., charged with a communication from him to Major Anderson, at Fort Sumter, in which we were authorized to demand the evacuation of the fort. We arrived there at 3.45 p. m., under a white flag. Lieutenant Davis, the officer of the day, received us very politely, and on being informed that we had a message in writing for Major Anderson which we desired to deliver in person to the officer in command of the fort, conducted us into the presence of Major Anderson. We were welcomed by the major with great courtesy, who, after receiving and reading our communication, left us to consult with his officers. About 4.30 he again joined us, bringing his reply, the contents of which he stated to us, after which, and but a short time before departing, we held a short conversation with him, in the course of which he made the following remarks: "Gentlemen, if you do not batter the fort to pieces about us, we shall be starved out in a few days." These words, under the circumstances, seemed to have much significance, and to be of sufficient importance to induce us to report them particularly. We took leave of Major Anderson and the fort at 4.40 p. m., and reached the city at 5.10 p. m. We verbally reported immediately at headquarters the substance of what is written above.

All of which is respectfully submitted for the information of the brigadier-general commanding.

JAMES CHESTNUT, JR.,
Aide-de-Camp.

STEPHEN D. LEE,
Captain C.S. Army, Aide-de-Camp.

A.R. CHISOLM,
Lieutenant-Colonel and Aide-de-Camp.

to Major D.R. JONES,
Adjutant-General of the Provisional Forces, C.S.A., Charleston, S.C.

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April 12, 1861 - James Chesnut (Jr.) et al to Major D.R. Jones

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Joint reports of James Chestnut (Jr.), Lieutenant Colonel A.R. Chisolm, Captain S.D. Lee, and Messrs. John L. Manning, William Porcher Miles, and Roger A. Pryor, aides-de-camp

HEADQUARTERS PROVISIONAL FORCES,
Charleston, S.C.,
April 12, 1861.

SIR: We have the honor to submit the following report of our movements and action:

After leaving the brigadier-general commanding last night, at 11 o'clock p. m., in obedience to orders we repaired with the second communication to Major Anderson, at Fort Sumter. This communication was based on the telegram from Honorable L. P. Walker, expressing a desire not to injure the fort unnecessarily, and wishing to make another effort to avoid any useless effusion of blood. We reached fort Sumter at 12.45 a. m., delivered the communication, and received Major Anderson's reply at 3.15 a. m. He expressed his willingness to evacuate the fort on the 15th instant at noon, if provided with the necessary means of transportation, if he should not receive prior to that time contradictory instructions from his Government or additional supplies, and that he would not in the mean time open his fire upon our forces unless compelled to do so by some hostile act against his fort or the flag of his Government by the forces under General Beauregard's command,d or by any portion of them,or by the perpetration of some act showing a hostile intention on our part against this fort or the flag it bears. His reply. which was shown to us, plainly indicated that if instructions should be received contrary to his purpose to evacuate, or if he should received supplies, or if the Confederate troops should fire on hostile troops of the United States, or upon transports covered by his flag, although containing men, munitions, and supplies intended for him, and designing hostile operations against us, he would still feel himself bound to fire upon us, and at liberty not to evacuate Fort Sumter.

These terms being manifestly futile of ar as we were concerned, placing us rather at a great disadvantage, and not within the cope of the instructions verbally given us, we promptly refused them and declined to enter into any such arrangements. Under these circumstances, pursuing our instructions, we notified him at once in writing that our batteries would open fire upon him within an hour from that time, which would be at 4.20. We then proceeded at once to Fort Johnson, which we reached at 4 a. m., and to Captain George S. James, commanding at that post, gave the order to open fire at the time indicated. His first shell was field at 4.30 a. m., the other batteries generally opening at 4.45 a. m. We were delayed at Fort Sumter longer than we expected, and we think longer than was necessary to decide upon the communication we received, and so indicated to Major Anderson; but this delay we could not avoid. Immediately upon leaving Fort Johnson we reported to General Beauregard, at his office, about daylight.

All of which is respectfully submitted for the information of the brigadier-general commanding.

JAS. CHESTNUT, JR.,
Aide-de-Camp.

STEPHEN D. LEE,
Captain, C.S. Army, Aide-de-Camp.

to Major D. R. JONES,
Adjutant-General of Provisional Forces, Charleston, S.C.

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April 12, 1861 - James Chesnut (Jr.) et al to Major D.R. Jones

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Joint reports of James Chestnut (Jr.), Lieutenant Colonel A.R. Chisolm, Captain S.D. Lee, and Messrs. John L. Manning, William Porcher Miles, and Roger A. Pryor, aides-de-camp

HEADQUARTERS PROVISIONAL FORCES,
Charleston, S.C.,
April 13, 1861.

SIR: In obedience to orders from the commanding general, Beauregard,w e left the wharf at 11.15, and proceeded in an open boat to deliver communication to Brigadier-General Simons, commanding on Morris Island, and passing under the batteries of Fort Johnson landed in the rear of Major Stevens' battery. Our orders were specifically to ask information as to the condition of the batteries on the island, and any other facts necessary to be communicated from Brigadier-General Simons to the commanding general, and also to establish military communications by land from Morris Island to the city of Charleston. We were moreover instructed to learn the condition of Fort Sumter as far as practicable without unnecessary exposure, and if the bombardment and conflagration within had forced an evacuation by Major Anderson and his command.

At the period of passing Fort Sumter about 12 m. the firing from it had ceased, except occasional shots opposite Fort Moultrie, but was kept up with great precision and regularity but he batteries from Fort Johnson, Sullivan's Island, and Morris Island. The conflagration of the officers' quarters in the fortress appeared to be on the increase, and although the United States flag was still flying when we landed, there appeared no other evidence of the continuation of the contest.

After communicating with General Simons and establishing a land communication with the city, it was deemed advisable to send a flag to Fort Sumter and demand its evacuation, as at 1.10 p. m. precisely the United States flag had suddenly disappeared from its walls. While a white flag and the boat which bore us over was being made ready to take us, Colonel Wigfall, who had been detailed for special duties on Morris Island, thinking that tn time was to be lost lest the garrison be destroyed, and accompanied by Private Young, of the Palmetto Guard, and two oarsmen, hastily entered a small skiff and pulled towards the fort with a white flag in his hand. Its size was too small to be distinctly seen by our batteries, and in consequence the discharge of neither shot or shell was discontinued by them, except those on Morris Island. His approach, therefore, to Sumteer was one of imminent danger. We saw him after landing disappear into the fort through an embrasure. After the lapse of a short period of time he reappeared upon the pavement at the base of the fortification and re-embarked, directing his course to where we stood, at Major Stevens's battery. Meantime the flag that had been erected after the flag-staff was cut away was taken down and a white flag run up in its stead. Before reaching the shore on his return Colonel Wifgall gave evidence that Major Anderson had consented to evacuate, which was soon after confirmed. he was received upon the beach by the troops, who for a moment rushed out ot meet him, with strong evidences of admiration. We then took Colonel Wigfall with us in our boat, and returned to the city to report to the general commanding.

Brigadier-General Simons had no specific intelligence to communicate to the general commanding beyond the events narrated; but we take pride and pleasure in reporting the spirit, promptness, and energy which characterized the portion of his command inspected by us.

All of which is respectfully submitted for the information of the general commanding.

JAMES CHESTNUT, JR.,
Aide-de-Camp.

A.R. CHISOLM,
Lieutenant-Colonel and Aide-de-Camp.

JOHN L. MANNING,
Aide-de-Camp.

to Major D.R. JONES,
Adjutant-General Provisional Forces.

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April 15, 1861 - James Chesnut (Jr.) et al to Major D.R. Jones

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Joint reports of James Chestnut (Jr.), Lieutenant Colonel A.R. Chisolm, Captain S.D. Lee, and Messrs. John L. Manning, William Porcher Miles, and Roger A. Pryor, aides-de-camp

HEADQUARTERS PROVISIONAL FORCES, C. S. ARMY,
Charleston, S.C.,
April 15, 1861.

SIR: We have the honor to submit the following report of our visit to Fort Sumter on the 13th instant for the information of the brigadier-general commanding:

After reporting to the general the execution of the orders with which we were charged for Morris Island, and in company with Colonel Wigfall reporting the surrender of Fort Sumter, and also its dangerous condition from the fire occasioned by the hot shot from Fort Moultrie, we proceeded, by order of the brigadier-general commanding, immediately to Southern Warf, where we embarked on board the steamer Osiris for Fort Sumter, accompanied by the chief of the city fire department, Mr. Nathan, with a fire engine and its company. On our arrival at Fort Sumter we were met by Dr. Crawford, surgeon of the fort, who directed us to avoid the wharf, as it was in danger of blowing up at any moment from its mines. The doctor conducted us into the presence of Major Anderson, on the opposite side of the fort from the wharf, we entering the fort through an embrasure. We found the barracks totally destroyed by fire, occasioned by our shells and hot shot. We stated to Major Anderson that we had been sent to Fort Sumter by General Beauregard with a fire engine, to offer assistance to extinguish his fire and to render any other assistance he might require, and also Surgeon-General Gibbes, of South Carolina, and assistants were present to administer to any wounded he might have. The major replied that he thanked the general for his kindness, but hat this fire was almost burned out, and that he had but one man wounded, and he not seriously. We asked him if the magazine was safe. He replied he thought the lower magazine safe, though it was amid the burning ruins, and that he had thrown about one hundred barrels of powder into the water from the upper magazine during the action, for the safety of his command. We again asked him if he did not think it best to use the engine which accompanied us on he steamer, which lay out in the stream. He replied no-that he thought everything had been consumed that would burn.

Major Anderson expressed great satisfaction when we told him that we had no casualties on our side, and again asked us to thank General Beauregard for his kindness; and, on leaving, the major accompanied us himself as far as our small boat. We returned to the city and reported the result of our visit to General Beauregard 7 p.m.

All of which is submitted for the information of the brigadier-general commanding.

JAMES CHESTNUT, JR.,
JOHN L. MANNING,
Aides-de-Camp.

A.R. CHISOLM,
Lieutenant-Colonel and Aide-de-Camp.

to Major D.R. JONES,
Assistant Adjutant-General Provisional Forces, C.S.A.

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April 15, 1861 - William Porcher Miles et al to Major D.R. Jones

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Joint reports of James Chestnut (Jr.), Lieutenant Colonel A.R. Chisolm, Captain S.D. Lee, and Messrs. John L. Manning, William Porcher Miles, and Roger A. Pryor, aides-de-camp

HEADQUARTERS PROVISIONAL, C.S.A.,
Charleston, S.C.,
April 15, 1861.

MAJOR: On Friday, April 12, we received orders from General Beauregard to carry dispatches to General Dunovant, commanding on Sullivan's Island. We were directed to communicate the purport of the dispatches, which were open, to Captain Martin, in command of the floating battery and the Dahlgren-bun battery; to Captain Hallonquist, in command of the enfilade battery and a masked mortar battery near the same spot; and to Colonel Ripley, in command of fort Moultrie-all of them posts on Sullivan's Island. We set out on our mission at 9 o'clock a. m. and proceeded in a boat to Mount Pleasant. After communicating with Captain Martin we reweld over to and landed on the floating Iron battery. We found Lieutenant yates actively engaged in returning the fire from Fort Sumter, which was then specially directed against his battery. The latter had been repeatedly hit, but had successfully resisted all the shot (32-pounders) which had struck it, with the exception of one, which had passed through the narrow, angular slope just below the roof.

After spending some time in this battery we proceed to the Dahlgren-gun battery, where Captain Hamilton was commanding in person. Both the floating battery and the Dahlgren gun were directing their special attention to the dismounting of such of the guns en barbette upon Fort Sumter as the batteries could be brought to bear upon. The fire from both batteries was effective and well sustained. We next visited Captain Hallonquist's enfilanding battery, which was doing some admirable shooting. After remaining here a short time we proceeded to Captain Hallonquist's mortar battery, and from thence to Fort Moultrie. Here we found an active, regular, well-sustained, and well-directed firing going on, which was being most vigorously returned by Fort Sumter. The quarters were pretty well ridden, and the finance for hot shot twice struck, but not materially inured.

After carefully watching the firing for some time we visited Captain Butler's mortar battery, where we found General Dunovant and delivered our dispatches. We then returned to Fort Moultrie, and after spending about na hour there proceeded back to the convey, where our boat was awaiting us, and touching at the floating battery for a communication for headquarters we rowed over once more to Mount Pleasant, for the purpose of delivering a message from Lieutenant-Colonel Ripley (by request) to Captain Martin. We then returned to the city, which we reached about half-past 4 p. m. and immediately reported verbally at headquarters to the brigadier-general commanding.

We cannot conclude our report without expressing the extreme pleasure and gratification which we felt at the coolness, spirit, skill, and alacrity which we witnessed at all points among the officers and men.

Very respectfully,

WM. PORCHER MILES,
JOHN L. MANNING,
Aides to Brigadier-General Beauregard.

Major D.R. JONES,
Assistant Adjutant-General, Provisional Forces, C.S.A.

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April 15, 1861 - Stephen D. Lee et al to Major D.R. Jones

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Joint reports of James Chestnut (Jr.), Lieutenant Colonel A.R. Chisolm, Captain S.D. Lee, and Messrs. John L. Manning, William Porcher Miles, and Roger A. Pryor, aides-de-camp

HEADQUARTERS PROVISIONAL ARMY, C.S.A.,
Charleston,
April 15, 1861.

SIR: We have the honor to submit the following report of our visit to Fort Sumter on the 13th instant:

Informed about 1 o'clock that no flag was waving over Fort Sumter, General Beauregard detached us immediately to proceeded to the fort and say to Major Anderson that his flag going down and his quarters in flames we were sent to inquire if he needed any assistance. When about half-way from the city to Fort Sumter we observed that the United States flag had been raised again. At once we determined to go back to the city, but had not proceeded far in return when, discovering a white flag floating form the ramparts of Sumter, we again directed our course to the fort. On landing we were conducted to the presence of Major Anderson, whom we informed that in consequence of the conflagration in the fort we had been sent by General Beauregard to inquire if he needed assistance. Major Anderson replied: "Present my compliments to General Beauregard, and salt o him I thank him for his kindness, but need no assistance." Continuing, the major said: "Gentlemen, do I understand you have come direct from General Beauregard?" We replied int he affirmative. "Why," returned Major Anderson, "Colonel Wigfall has just been here as an aide to and by authority of General Beauregard, and proposed the same terms of evacuation offered on the 11th instant." We informed him we had just left General Beauregard in the city, and had come in obedience to his orders, charged with the message just delivered. The major expressed regret for the misunderstanding,and repeated that he had understood Colonel Wigfall to say he was direct from General Beauregard, and as one his aides was authorized to propose terms of evacuation. We then inquired if he would reduce to writing the terms proposed by Colonel Wigfall. To which the major replied, certainly he would. Major Anderson then declared than he would immediately run up his flag; that he regretted it had ever been taken down, and that i would not have been lowered if he had not understood Colonel Wigfall to come directly from General Beauregard to treat. We requested that, under the peculiar circumstances, he would not raise his flag until we could communicate to General Beauregard the terms of evacuation with which he had furnished us; he assented to the proposition, and we left the fort.

STEPHEN D. LEE,
Captain, C.S. Army.

ROGER A. PRYOR,
WM. PORCHER MILES,
Aides-de-Camp.

to Major D.R. JONES,
Assistant Adjutant-General, Provisional Forces, C.S.A.

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No. 26

No. 26 - Joint Reports (Confederate Army)

These reports from D.R. Jones (Major and Assistant Adjutant-General of the C.S. Army); and Col. Charles Allston (Jr.), H.J. Hartsene (Commander, C.S. Navy), and Messrs. William Porcher Miles and Roger A. Pryor, aides-de-camp, detail Confederate artillery operations against Fort Sumter.

April 15, 1861 - Major D.R. Jones et al to Brigadier General G.T. Beauregard

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Joint reports of Major D.R. Jones, Assistant Adjutant-General, C. S. Army; and Colonel Charles Allston, jr., Commander H.T. Hartstene (C.S. Navy), and Messrs. William Porcher Miles and Roger A. Pryor, aides-de-camp

CHARLESTON,
April 15, 1861.

SIR: We, the undersigned, beg leave to submit the following report of our visit to Fort Sumter, and of our interview with Major Anderson, on Saturday, the 13th instant, in obedience to your orders.

We arrived at the fort about a quarter to 3 o'clock p. m.; were met at the what by Captain Seymour, and were at once conducted to the presence of Major Anderson. We informed his that we came from you to say that, on learning the fort was in flames, and his flag down, you had sent Colonels Miles and Pryor and Captain Lee, members of your staff, to offer any assistance in your power, and that as soon as hid flag of truce was hoisted you sent us to received any propositions he might wish to make. Major Anderson said and exceedingly disagreeable and embarrassing mistake had occurred; that his flagstaff had bee shot down, but that as soon as it could be done his flag was again heisted.

Just at this time it was reported to him that General Wigfall was outside the fort demanding to see the commanding officer. major Anderson said that he went out and met General Wighfall, who told him that he came from General Beauregard to demand the surrender of the fort, and urged Major Anderson to haul down his flag and run up a flag of truce; that General Beauregard would give him the same terms offered before the conflict began. Major Anderson then stated that he wa much surprised to learn from Colonels Miles and Pryor and Captain Lee, who had arrived at the fort soon after he had lowered his flag, that although General Wigfall wa on the staff of General Beauregard, he had been two days away from him, and was acting on the staff of some general on Morris Island; that as soon as he (Major Anderson) learned this, he told Captain Lee that he would immediately run up his flag and recommence his firing.

Major Anderson then read to us a note which he had sent to you by the hand of Captain lee, in which he said that he would surrender the fort on the same terms offered by you in your letter to him on the 11th instant. On learning this we told him that we were authorized to offer him those terms, excepting only the clause relating to the salute to the flag, to which Major Anderson replied it would be exceedingly gratifying to him, as well as to his command, to be permitted os lute their flag, having so gallantly defended the fort under such trying circumstances, and hoped that General Beauregard would not refuse it, as such a privilege was not unusual. We told him we were not authorized to grant that privilege, and asked him what his answer would be if not permitted to salute his flag. he said he would not urge the point, but would prefer to refer the matter again to you, and requested us to see you again and get your reply.

Major Anderson requested us to say to Governor Pickens and yourself that, as an evidence of his desire to save the public property as much as possible, he had three times on Friday and twice on Saturday sent his men up to extinguish the fire under the heavy fire of our batteries, and when the magazines were in imminent danger of being blown up.

We then returned to the city and reported to you substantially as above.

We have the honor to be, general, very respectfully, your obedient servants,

D.R. JONES,
Assistant Adjutant-General.

CHAS. ALLSTON, JR.,
Colonel and A.D.C.

Brigadier General G.T. BEAUREGARD,
Commanding Provisional Army.

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April 14, 1861 - Major D.R. Jones et al to Brigadier General G.T. Beauregard

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Joint reports of Major D.R. Jones, Assistant Adjutant-General, C. S. Army; and Colonel Charles Allston, jr., Commander H.T. Hartstene (C.S. Navy), and Messrs. William Porcher Miles and Roger A. Pryor, aides-de-camp

CHARLESTON, S.C.,
April 14, 1861.

GENERAL: In accordance with your order we have the honor to make the following report:

On Saturday, April 13, at about 7 o'clock p. m., we proceeded to Fort Sumter by your order to arrange finally the conditions of the evacuation. We presented your communication to Major Anderson, who, after perusing it, read it aloud to his officers, all of who, we believe, were present. The major expressed himself much gratified with the tenor of the communication and the generous terms agreed to by you. We inquired of Major Anderson when he desired to leave. He said as soon as possible, and suggested 9 o'clock the next morning. It was arranged that the Catawba or some other steamer should convey the major and his command either directly to New York or put them on board the United States fleet then lying outside the bar, according as one or the other plan might be agreed upon after a conference with the commander of the fleet. Major Anderson requested us to take Lieutenant Snyder down to the fleet for the purpose of arranging the matter. This Captain Hartstene undertook to do.

We have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servants,

D.R. JONES,
Assistant Adjutant-General.

WM PORCHER MILES,
R.A. PRYOR,
H.J. HARTSTENE, C.S.N.,
Aides-de-Camp.

Brigadier-General BEAUREGARD,
Commanding Provisional Army, C.S.A.

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No. 27

No. 27 - Report from R.W. Gibbes (Surgeon General, S.C. Army)

This report from R.W. Gibbes, a Surgeon General in the South Carolina Army, details medical information from Confederate artillery operations against Fort Sumter.

April 16, 1861 - Surgeon General Robert W. Gibbes to Major D.R. Jones

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Medical report of Surg. General R.W. Gibbes, South Carolina Army

HEADQUARTERS SURGEON-GENERAL'S DEPARTMENT,
Charleston, April 16, 1861.

SIR: From the returns received from the various posts I have the unexampled and happy privilege of stating that no serious casualty has occurred during the vigorous action of thirty-three hours, in reducing Fort Sumter. Four trifling contusions are reported at Fort Moultrie, but none at other posts, and it is a subject of equal gratification that even in the management of heavy ordnance by new recruits and unpracticed volunteers no accident to life or limb has occurred.

Immediately upon the flag of Fort Sumter being struck I proceeded to that fortress to tender my assistance and hospital at Mount Pleasant to Major Anderson, and received from his the pleasing intelligence that only four cases of slight injuries had resulted to his men. On Sunday a sad casualty occurred in saluting hi flag, when the explosion of some loose cartridges beneath a gun struck down seven men. One was instantly killed, and another so seriously wounded that he died soon after reaching my hospital in Charleston; one remaining in the hospital, doing well under the care of Prof. G. G. Chisolm, of the medical college of the State, and four were removed with the garrison. The precipitation suddenly of several regiments upon me during the past few days, totally without any preparation of their surgeons, has required a large supply of medicines, instruments, hospital stores, &c., but I am happy to say they have received promptly all their requisitions.

Respectfully,

R.W. GIBBES, M.D.,
Surgeon-General South Carolina Army.

Adjutant-General JONES.

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No. 28

No. 28 - Report from H.J. Hartsene (Commander, C.S. Navy)

This report from H.J. Hartsene, the Commander of the Confederate States Navy, details evacuation information from Confederate artillery operations against Fort Sumter.

April 16, 1861 - Commander Henry J. Hartsene to Brigadier Major David Jones

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Report of Commander H.J. Hartstene, C.S. Navy, concerning the transportation of Major Anderson and his command from Fort Sumter to the U.S. fleet off Charleston Bar

HEADQUARTERS PROVISIONAL FORCES, C.S.A.,
Charleston, S.C.,
April 16, 1861.

MAJOR: On the afternoon of the 13th instant, shortly after the surrender of Fort Sumter, I was placed on board the steamer Catawba to convey to the fort, in connection with Major Jones, Captains Miles and Pryor (aides to Brigadier-General Beauregard), to arrange with Major Anderson the means most acceptable to him for his evacuation the following day.

The major, agreeable to our offer, sent on board of us Lieutenant Snyder to confer with the commander of the fleet off the bar in regard to transportation. I accompanied him out on the morning of the 14th instant, and after a short conference he returned to the fort, where it was arranged that the steamers and all necessary facilities for the removal of the command should be ready at 11 o'clock, and that they should be conveyed to the fleet, and have the option either of taking passage in one of their vessels or of going on the one furnished by the Confederacy.

At 11 o'clock all facilities were at the disposal of Major Anderson, but the work of removal was delayed inc consequence of the accidental explosion which killed and wounded five of his command. They were not embarked until sundown, when it was too late to cross the bar. This, however, was effected early the following morning, and command shortly afterwards was transferred to the steamer Baltic, one of the transportation of the United States.

All of which is respectfully submitted for the information of the brigadier-general commanding.

Respectfully, &c.,

H.J. HARSTENE.

Major D.R. JONES,
Asst. Adjt. General of Provisional Forces, C.S.A., Charleston, S.C.

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Union Correspondence

Union Correspondence, etc.

These reports and correspondences detail other Union operations in Charleston Harbor from October 31, 1860 to April 14, 1861.

DISPATCHES 1-50

November 1, 1860 - Colonel H.K. Craig to Colonel J.L. Gardner

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Union Correspondence, etc.

ORDNANCE OFFICE, WAR DEPARTMENT,
Washington,
November 1, 1860.

Colonel J.L. GARDNER,
Commanding Fort Moultrie, Charleston, S.C.:

SIR: I transmit herewith a copy of letter addressed by me to the Secretary of War, which has been approved by him, and which I submit to you for your vies as to the expediency or propriety of placing arms in the hands of hired men for the purpose indicated.

Should you approve the measure I will thank you to request Military Storekeeper Humphreys to make the issue indicated in said letter, and to report the fact to this office that it may be covered by an order for supplies.

Respectfully, &c.,

H.K. CRAIG,
Colonel of Ordnance.

[Inclosure.]

October 31, 1860 - Colonel H.K. Craig to Secretary John B. Floyd

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Union Correspondence, etc.

ORDNANCE OFFICE,
WASHINGTON, D.C.,
October 31, 1860.

Hon. J.B. FLOYD,
Secretary of War:

SIR: There is at Fort Sumter, Charleston Harbor, now in course of construction, besides a part of its armament, a considerable quantity of ammunition, &c., and it has been suggested by the Engineer officer in charge of the work that a few small-arms placed in the hands of his workmen for the protection of the Government property there might be a useful precaution. If the measure should, on being communicated, meet with the concurrence of the commanding officer of the troops in the harbor, I recommend that I may be authorized to issued forty muskets to the Engineer officer.

With much respect,

H.K. CRAIG,
Colonel of Ordnance.

[Indorsement.]


WAR DEPARTMENT,
October 31, 1860.

Approved:

J.B. FLOYD,
Secretary of War.



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October 31, 1860 - Colonel H.K. Craig to Secretary John B. Floyd

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Union Correspondence, etc.

ORDNANCE OFFICE,
WASHINGTON, D.C.,
October 31, 1860.

Hon. J.B. FLOYD,
Secretary of War:

SIR: There is at Fort Sumter, Charleston Harbor, now in course of construction, besides a part of its armament, a considerable quantity of ammunition, &c., and it has been suggested by the Engineer officer in charge of the work that a few small-arms placed in the hands of his workmen for the protection of the Government property there might be a useful precaution. If the measure should, on being communicated, meet with the concurrence of the commanding officer of the troops in the harbor, I recommend that I may be authorized to issued forty muskets to the Engineer officer.

With much respect,

H.K. CRAIG,
Colonel of Ordnance.

[Indorsement.]


WAR DEPARTMENT,
October 31, 1860.

Approved:

J.B. FLOYD,
Secretary of War.



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November 5, 1860 - Brevet Colonel John Gardner to Colonel H.K. Craig

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Union Correspondence, etc.

FORT MOULTRIE, S.C.,
November 5, 1860.

Colonel H.K. CRAIG,
Chief of Ordnance, U.S. Army, Washington, D.C.:

COLONEL: Your communication of 1st instant, with its inclusive, in reference to placing forty muskets in the hands of the Engineer officer in charge of Fort Sumter as a precautionary measure proper to this time of excitement, is received. My views are asked on two, or rather three points:

1st. On that which forms the condition of the Secretary's approval of the issue, namely, that I concur in its expediency;

2nd. On the "propriety" of placing the arms in the hands of hired men for the purpose indicated; and,

3rd. On the "expediency" of doing so.

To the first I reply that I have already said in effect, on my post return for last month, that while I do not apprehend that any attempt upon the United States works here will receive the countenance of the State or city authority, it is by some thought that a tumultuary force may be incited by the feeling of the time, and invited by the present disordered condition of the works to make such an attempt without it, and that this possibility makes it incumbent on me to provide as far as I may against, it, and forty additional musketeers would then be desirable.

As to the "propriety" of the issue I see no objection. The arms need not be delivered to the men selected by the Engineer officer till the occasion should actually obtain. The workmen in charge of the property are bound on principles of common law to defend it against purloiners, to say nothing of the 96th Article of War, applicable to all "persons whatsoever receiving pay from the United States."

The "expediency" of the measure is quite another question of less obvious features.

There are one hundred and nine men at Fort Sumter, most of them laborers of foreign nativity, of whom it is prudent to be somewhat suspicious, for I am just informed that on some of them being questioned (as is the wont of the times) on the point of their proclivity in the event of secession, replied to the effect that they were indifferent, and intimated that the largest bribe would determine their action, and they can, you know, discharge themselves of their public obligations at any moment, and thus be free to choose sides.

Now, forty muskets in the hands of the faithful among them might control the rest, but certainly not on a close push from outside. The Engineer officer can, he says, keep the arms beyond the physical possibility of being taken from his by the untrustworthy, and he can cut off all communication peremptorily with citizens. Now, unless some such precaution be taken, this large body of laborers may, in the possible event in question, unrestrainedly deliver up the post and its contents on bribe or demand. Meanwhile they cannot be removed outside of that isolated island post, which has not a foot of ground beyond the walls of the fort. In this connection I may add that at this post too (Fort Moultrie) we have about fifty laborers of like description with known secession propensities, as they are residents permanently of this quarter.

On the point of expediency, then, I am constrained to say that the only proper precaution-that which has o objection-is to fill these two companies with drilled recruits (say fifty me) at once, and send two companies from Old Point Comfort to occupy respectively Fort Sumter and Castle Pinckney.

I am, colonel, yours respectfully,

JNO. L. GARDNER,
Brevet Colonel, U.S. Army.

[Indorsement.]


ORDNANCE OFFICE, November 8, 1860.

Respectfully submitted to the Secretary of War, with the remark that as the issue of forty muskets, approved by him 31st ultimo, was contingent on the approval of Colonel Gardner, it is probably that he issue has not and will not be made without further orders.

H.K. CRAIG,
Colonel of Ordnance.



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November 10, 1860 - Colonel H.K. Craig to Captain F.C. Humphreys

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Union Correspondence, etc.

CHARLESTON ARSENAL, S.C.,
November 10, 1860.

Colonel H.K. CRAIG,
Chief of Ordnance, U.S.A., Washington, D.C.:

SIR: On the 7th instant I received an order from Colonel Gardner, commanding troops in the harbor, to issue to him all of the fixed ammunition for shall-arms (percussion caps, primers, &c.) at this arsenal, such a step being advisable, in his estimation, for the better protection of the property in view of the excitement now existing in this city and State. Being allowed no discretion in the matter, his order being preemptory, I proceeded to obey it on the afternoon of the 8th. Captain Seymour having come up from Fort Moultrie, with a detachment of men and a schooner, for the purpose of removing the stores, the shipment of them was interfered with by the owner of the wharf until the city authorities could be notified, and there were but three or four cart-loads on board. I considered it best that they should be reconveyed to the magazine until something definite should be reconveyed to the magazine until something definite should be determined upon, which was done. Not having heard anything further from Colonel Gardner relative to this matter, I conceive it my duty to report the facts in the case, which I respectfully submit.

Very respectfully, I am, sir, your most obedient servant,

F.C. HUMPHREYS,
Military Storekeeper Ordnance, Commanding.

[Indorsements.]



ORDNANCE OFFICE,
November 8, 1860.

Respectfully submitted to the Secretary of War, with the remark that as the issue of forty muskets, approved by him 31st ultimo, was contingent on the approval of Colonel Gardner, it is probably that he issue has not and will not be made without further orders.

H.K. CRAIG,
Colonel of Ordnance.



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November 11, 1860 - Asst. Adj. Gen. Fitz John Porter to Adj. Gen. Samuel Cooper

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Union Correspondence, etc.

WASHINGTON, D.C.,
November 11, 1860.

Colonel S. COOPER,
Adjutant-General, Washington City:

SIR: In compliance with instructions from the Secretary of War of the 6th instant, I inspected the fortifications and troops in Charleston Harbor, and have now the honor to report as follows:

FORT MOULTRIE.

This post is garrisoned by Companies E and H, First Artillery, and the regimental band is quartered there.

State of the command.

Field and staff.-Bvt. Colonel John L. Gardner, lieutenant-colonel First Artillery, commanding; Asst. Surg. Samuel W. Crawford, medical department.

Company officers.-Captain Miner Knowlon, Company H, absent sick since August 1, 1850; Captain Abner Doubleday, commanding Company E; Bvt. Captain Truman Seymour, first lieutenant, commanding Company H; First Lieutenant Otis H. Tillinghast, regimental quartermaster, and acting adjutant at regimental headquarters, absent since May 29, 1860; First Lieutenant Theodore Talbot, Company H; First Lieutenant Jefferson C. Davis, Company E; Second Lieutenant Samuel Breck, Company E, on duty at the Military Academy since September 13, 1860; Second Lieutenant Norman J. Hall, Company H, acting assistant quartermaster and acting assistant commissary of subsistence since September 1, 1860, and post adjutant.

Enlisted men.-Band and staff, 9 musicians, 1 hospital steward, 1 ordnance sergeant absent.

Companies E and H, for duty, 36; on extra or daily duty, 12; sick, 4; in arrest or confinement, 11; absent in confinement, 2. Total, 64. Present at inspection, 30; artillery drill, 21; infantry drill, 23; comprising all who, in the opinion of the commanding officer, could with propriety and safety be taken from other duties.

The officers-Lieutenant Talbot in delicate health excepted-are in good health, and capable of enduring the fatigues incident to any duty that may be demanded of them. They are sober, intelligent, and active, and appear acquainted with their general duties, perform them with some exceptions punctually and promptly, and all are anxious to give the commanding officer the aid to which he is entitled.

The non-commissioned officers and privates appear intelligent and obedient, but not move with an alacrity and spirit indicating the existence of a strict discipline.

* * * *
A portion of the work, interior and exterior, is necessarily encumbered by material being used in repairing parapets, beds for guns, and arranging for the defense of the fort. In other respects the police of the post is good.

* * * *
The hospital storehouses are outside the forts. All are old frame buildings, highly inflammable, and not secured by the presence or watchful eye of a sentinel from the acts of evil-disposed persons. An incendiary could in a few minutes destroy all the supplies and workshops of the command.

Lieutenant hall states that he has some difficulty in procuring suitable four and pork in Charleston, sometimes having to return the former, while the latter cannot at times be purchased. He has about two months' supply of provisions for the present command.

* * * *
The ungraded state of the fort invites attack, if such design exists, and much discretion and prudence are required on the part of the commander to restore the proper security without exciting a community prompt to misconstrue actions of authority. I think this can be effected by a proper commander, without checking in the slightest the progress of the engineers in completing the works of defense. Any interference with that labor would probably rouse suspicions and crate excitement. All could have been easily arranged several weeks since, when the danger was foreseen by the present commander. Now much delicacy must be practiced. The garrison is weak, and I recommend that a favorable opportunity be taken to fill up the companies with the best-drilled recruits available.

* * * *
The following events, which transpired the day I arrived at Fort Moultrie, I deem proper to report here, as I have orally heretofore, as they relate to an act of unusual importance, tending to indicate the inflammable and impulsive state of the public mind in Charleston-to a great extend characteristic of the feeling manifested throughout the State-and necessity for prudence and judgment on the part of the commanding officer in all transactions which may bear upon the relations of the Federal Government to the State of South Carolina, and of the Army to our citizens. I regard it especially important to refer to them, as Colonel Gardner informed me he should make no report.

The military storekeeper has at the arsenal in the city a large number of arms and quantity of ammunition, which, fearing it might fall into improper hands, he desired to secure to the United States, and under counsel from Colonel Gardner he packed them up and held in readiness to be shipped to Fort Moultrie whenever Colonel Gardner should send for them. Availing himself of an approved requisition for paints, lacquers, 7c., needed at the post, he sent Captain Saymour to the city for the supply and other articles that the military storekeeper might wish to have stored at the post, and thus secured in case of negro insurrections. The owner of the wharf refused permission to ship them. A crowd collected, and suspecting an attempt on the part of the Government ot smuggle (it being late in the evening, or after dark) arms, ammunition, &c., from the city, to be used against it, or to prevent their use by citizens in case of disturbances, would not permit the property to be carried away.

FORT SUMTER.

Fort Sumter is not completed, and is now occupied by the Engineers, under the direction of Lieutenant Snyder (Captain Foster being absent), who has employed upon it some hundred and ten men. A portion of the armament is mounted, but for its defense a few regular soldiers, to overawe the workmen and to control them, only would be necessary at present. The lower embrasures are closed, and if the main gate be secured a storming-party would require ladders twenty feet in length to gain admission. No arms are here, and I doubt if they would be serviceable in the hands of workmen, who would take the side of the stronger force present. Unless it should become necessary I think it advisable not to occupy this work so long as the mass of engineer workmen are engaged in it. The completion of those parts essential for the accommodation of a company might be hastened. The magazine contains thirty-nine thousand four hundred pounds of powder. The number of guns on hand is seventy-eight, consisting of 8 and 10 inch columbiads, 8-inch sea-coast howitzers, 42-pounder guns, and 32 and 24-pounders, with carriages, shot, shell, implements, &c.

CASTLE PINCKNEY.

Castle Pinckney commands Charleston, and its armament is complete. Here the powder belonging to the arsenal in the city is stored. A company can be accommodated here, while a small force under an officer would secure it against surprise or even a bold attack of such enemies likely to undertake it. It is under the charge of an ordnance sergeant, who keeps everything in as good order as possible. The quarters and magazine require repairs. Under present circumstances I would not recommend its occupation.

I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

F.J. PORTER,
Assistant Adjutant-General.

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November 12, 1860 - Captain F.C. Humphreys to Colonel H.K. Craig

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Union Correspondence, etc.

CHARLESTON ARSENAL, S.C.,
November 12, 1860.

Colonel H.K. CRAIG,
Chief of Ordnance, U.S.A., Washington, D.C.:

SIR: In view of the excitement now existing in this city and State, and the possibility of an insurrectionary movement on the part of the servile population, the governor hastened, through General Schnierle, of South Carolina Militia, a guard, of a detachment of a lieutenant and twenty men for this post, which has been accepted.

Trusting that this course may meet the approval of the Department, I am, sir, very respectfully, your most obedient servant,

F.C. HUMPHREYS,
Military Storekeeper Ordnance, Commanding.

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November 12, 1860 - Adj. Gen. Samuel Cooper to Major Robert Anderson

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Union Correspondence, etc.

ADJUTANT-GENERAL'S OFFICE,
Washington, D.C.,
November 12, 1860.

Major ROBERT ANDERSON,
First Artillery, Care of A.A.G., Hdqrs. Army, New York:

SIR: The Secretary of War desires to see you, and directs that you proceed to this city and report to him without unnecessary delay.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

S. COOPER,
Adjutant-General.

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November 14, 1860 - Captain John Foster to Colonel René De Russy

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Union Correspondence, etc.

FORT MOULTRIE, S.C.,
November 14, 1860.

Colonel R.E. DE RUSSY,
Commanding Corps of Engineers, U.S.A., Washington, D. C.:

COLONEL: I have the honor to inform you that I arrived here on the morning of the 11th instant. I found that the pintle blocks for the howitzer embrasures at Fort Moultrie had not arrived, and that the work was whiting for them. The communications being finished connecting the inferior of the caponieres with the interior of the fort, and not over for the being prepared as yet, I judged it prudent to construct temporary flaking arrangements at once, in consideration of the caponieres with the interior of the fort, and no cover for them being prepared as yet, I judged it prudent to construct temporary flanking arrangements at once, in consideration of the peculiar state of the public feeling here and the wishes of several officers of the garrison, including the commanding officer. These I commenced yesterday morning and completed last night, including the construction of temporary platforms and placing four field pieces in position. these temporary flanking arrangements occupy the positions that the caponieres are to occupy, one of them having its lines four feet within the walls of the caponiere, so as to give room for the masons to work. This temporary construction can therefore stand until I finish the outside caponier, which I shall do as soon as possible without waiting longer for the pintle stones.

I have made these temporary defenses as inexpensive as possible, and they consist simply of a stout board fence, ten feet high, surmounted by strips filled with nail-points, with a dry-brick wall two bricks thick on the inside, raised to the height of a man's head, and pierced with embrasures and a sufficient number of loopholes. Their immediate construction has satisfied and gratified the commanding officer, Colonel Gardner, and they are, I think, adequate to the present wants of the garrison.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J.G. FOSTER,
Captain of Engineers.

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November 15, 1860 - SPECIAL ORDERS No. 137 (Thomas)

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Union Correspondence, etc.

SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 137. }

HEADQUARTERS OF THE ARMY,
New York, November 15, 1860.

Major Robert Anderson, First Artillery, will forthwith proceed to Fort Moultrie, and immediately relieve Bvt. Colonel John L. Gardner, lieutenant-colonel of First Artillery, in command thereof; who, on being relieved, will repair without delay to San Antonio, Texas, and report to the commanding officer of the Department of Texas for duty, with that portion of this regiment serving therein.

By command of Lieutenant-General Scott:

L. THOMAS,
Assistant Adjutant-General.

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November 20, 1860 - Captain Horatio Wright to Captain John Foster

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Union Correspondence, etc.

ENGINEER DEPARTMENT,
Washington,
November 20, 1860.

Captain J.G. FOSTER,
Corps of Engineers, Charleston, S.C.:

CAPTAIN: Your letter of the 14th, reporting the temporary defensive arrangements you have had carried out since your arrival at Fort Moultrie on the 11th instant, has been received, and your proceedings are approved.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

H.G. WRIGHT,
Captain of Engineers, in charge.

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November 20, 1860 - Brevet Colonel Benjamin Huger to Colonel H.K. Craig

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Union Correspondence, etc.

CHARLESTON ARSENAL,
November 20, 1860.

Colonel H.K. CRAIG,
Ordnance Department:

SIR: In obedience to the instructions of the War Department I came to this place and have assumed command of the arsenal. The excitement concerning this arsenal which existed here a short time since is very much allayed, and this result is in a great measure due to the prudence and discretion of the military storekeeper, Mr. Humphreys, whose conduct on the occasion meets my commendation.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

BENJ. HUGER,
Brevet-Colonel, U.S. Army.

[Indorsement.]


ORDNANCE OFFICE,
November 24, 1860.

Respectfully submitted to the Secretary of War for his information.

WM. MAYNADIER,

Captain of Ordnance.


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November 23, 1860 - Major Robert Anderson to Adj. Gen. Samuel Cooper

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Union Correspondence, etc.

No. 1.]
FORT MOULTRIE, S.C.,
November 23, 1860.

Colonel S. COOPER,
Adjutant-General, U.S. Army:

COLONEL: In compliance with verbal instructions from the honorable Secretary of War, I have the honor to report that I have inspected the forts of this harbor. As Major Porter has recently made a report in relation to them, I shall confine my remarks mainly to other matters, of great importance, if the Government intends holding them. At Fort Moultrie the Engineer, Captain Foster, is working very energetically on the outer defenses, which will, should nothing unforeseen occur to prevent, be finished and the guns mounted in two weeks. There are several sand hillocks within four hundred yards of our eastern wall, which offer admirable cover to approaching parties, and would be formidable points for sharpshooters. Two of them command our work. These I shall be compelled to level, at least sufficiently to render our position less insecure than it now is. When the outworks are completed, this fort, with its appropriate was garrison, will be capable of making a very handsome defense. It is so small that we shall have little space for storing our provisions, wood, &c. The garrison now in it is so weak as to invite an attack, which is openly and publicly threatened. We are about sixty, and have a line of rampart of 1,500 feet in length to defend. If beleaguered, as every man of the command must be either engaged or held on the alders, they will be exhausted and worn down in a few days and nights of such service as they would then have to undergo.

At Fort Sumter the guns of the lower tier of casemates will be mounted, the Engineer estimates, in about seventeen days. That fort is now ready for the comfortable accommodation of one company, and, indeed, for the temporary reception of its proper garrison.

Captain Foster states that the magazines (4) are done, and in excellent condition; that they now contain 40,000 pounds of cannon powder and a fully supply of ammunition for one tier of guns. This work is the key to the entrance of this harbor; its guns command this work, and could soon drive out its occupants. It should be garrisoned at once. Castle Pinckney, a small caseated work, perfectly commanding the city of Charleston, is in excellent condition, with the exception of a few repairs, which will require the expenditure of about $500. they are-1st, replacing three water cask and the old banquette on the gorge; 2nd, repairing one of the cisterns and the old palisading, which, though much rotten, may at a trifling expense be made to answer for the present; 3rd, making six shutters for the embrasures and doing some slight work to the main gates. Two mortars and a few other articles belonging to this work were taken to the United States Arsenal in Charleston some months since for repair. They are still there. I shall ask the officer in charge to return them s soon as he can. The magazine is not a very good one; it contains some rifle and musket powder, said to be good, and also some cannon powder reported damaged. The powder belongs to the arsenal. It is, in my opinion, essentially important that this castle should be immediately occupied by a garrison, say, of two officers and thirty men. The safety of our little garrison would be rendered more certain, and our fort would be more secure from an attack by such a holding of Castle Pinckney then it would be from quadrupling our force. The Charlestonians would not venture to attack this place when they knew that their city was at the mercy of the commander of Castle Pinckney. So important do I consider the holding of Castle Pinckney by the Government that I recommend, if the troops asked for cannot be sent at once, that I be authorized to place an Engineer detachment, consisting, say, of one officer, two masons, two carpenters, and twenty-six laborers, to make the rapiers needed there. They might be sent without any opposition or suspicion, and would in a short time be sufficiently instructed in the use of the guns in the cattle to enable their commander to hold the castle against any force that could be sent against it. If my force was not so very small I would not hesitate to send a detachment at once to garrisoned immediately if the Government determines to keep command of this harbor.

I need not say how anxious I am-indeed, determined, so far as honor will permit-to avoid collision with the citizens of South Carolina. Nothing, however, will be better calculated at prevent bloodshed than our being found in such an attitude that it would be madness and folly to attack us. There is not so much of feverish excitement as there was last week, but that there is settled determination to leave the Union, and to obtain possession of this work, is apparent to all. Castle Pinckney, being so near the city, and having no one in it bull an ordnance sergeant, they regard as already in their possession. The clouds are threatening, and the storm may break upon us at any moment. I do, the, most earnestly entreat that a re-enforcement be immediately sent to this garrison, and that at least two companies be sent at the same time to Fourth Sumter and Castle Pinckney-half a company, under a judicious commander, sufficing, I think, for the latter work. I feel the full responsibility of making the above suggestions, because I firmly believe that as soon as the people of South Carolina learn that I have demanded re-enforcement, and that they have been ordered, they will occupy Castle Pinckney and attack this fort. It is therefore of vital importance that the troops embarked (say in war steamers) shall be designated for other duty. As we have no men who know anything about preparing ammunition, and our officers will be too much occupied to instruct them, I respectfully request that about half a dozen ordnance men, accustomed to the work of preparing fixed ammunition, be sent here, to be distributed at these forts.

Two of my best officers, Captain Seymour and Lieutenant Talbot, are delicate, and will, I fear, not be able to undergo much fatigue.

With these three works garrisoned as requested, and with a supply of ordnance stores, for which I shall send requisitions in a few days, I shall feel that, by the blessing of God, there may be a hope that no blood will be shed, and that South Carolina will not attempt to take these forts by force, but will resort to diplomacy to secure them. If we neglect, however, to strengthen ourselves, she will, unless these works are surrender on their first demand, most assuredly immediately attack us. I will thank the Department to give me special instructions, as my position here is rather a politico-military than a military one.

I presume, also, that the President ought to take some action in reference to my being a member of the Military Academy Commission, which is to reconvene in the city of Washington in a few days.

Unless otherwise specially directed, I shall make future communications through the ordinary channels.

I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

ROBERT ANDERSON,
Major, First Artillery, Commanding.

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November 24, 1860 - Adj. Gen. Samuel Cooper to Major Robert Anderson

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Union Correspondence, etc.

ADJUTANT-GENERAL'S OFFICE,
Washington,
November 24, 1860.

Major ROBERT ANDERSON,
First Regiment Artillery, U.S.A.,
Commanding Fort Moultrie, Charleston, S.C.:

MAJOR: The Secretary of War desires that you will communicate, with the least delay practicable, the present state o your command, and everything which may relate to the condition of the work under your charge and its capabilities of defense, together with such views as you may have to suggest in respect to the same. He desires to be informed whether, in view of maintaining the troops ready for efficient action and defense, it might not be advisable to employ reliable persons, not connected with the military service, for purposes of fatigue and police.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

S. COOPER,
Adjutant-General.

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November 24, 1860 - Captain John Foster to Colonel René De Russy

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Union Correspondence, etc.

CHARLESTON, S.C.,
November 24, 1860.

Colonel R.E. DE RUSSY,
Commanding Corps of Engineers, U.S.A., Washington, D.C.:

COLONEL: I have the honor to inform you that, yesterday, at the request of Major anderson, now in command of Fort Moultrie, I accompanied him on a visit to the other forts in the harbor, viz, Fort Sumter and Castle Pinckney, for the purpose of examining their condition and capacities for defense. Fort Sumter, having all the arches of the second tier turned, and a commencement made in laying the flagging; the traverse circle of the first tier reset; the flagging inside of the circles, on one face, laid ready for the guns to be mounted; preparations completed for mounting all the guns of this tier as fast as the flagging is laid; the floors in one barrack laid; officers' quarters completed; the whole of the barbette tier ready for the armament, presented an excellent appearance of preparation and strength equal to seventy per cent. of its efficiency when finished.

In the opinion of Major Anderson it is ready for, and ought to receive, at least one company, and I understand him to be about to ask for that garrison immediately.

We next visited Castle Pinckney, which was found in excellent order, with the exception of some repairs required on the wooden banquette on the gorge, first tier, some new caseate embrasure shutters, and the second cistern to be rebuilt. All other parts of the work were in good order, as it had but recently been thoroughly repaired with the above exceptions.

Major Anderson is about to urge upon the Department the sending of one company, also, to this fort, which commands the city of Charleston. In that case I think the second cistern should be repaired at once, and also the necessary renewal given to the decayed wooden banquette, over the cisterns on the gorge, and to the caseate shutters. I would, therefore, respectfully ask for the sum of six hundred dollars from the "Contingencies of fortifications: for this purpose. Regarding the shutters as necessary to be repaired at once, I am, in anticipation of your approval, having it done at this time.

There is another matter in connection with this work which Major Anderson suggested, and which may become important in view of the unsettled state of the public mind here, the temper of which seems not to be improving, and that is, to garrison Castle Pinckney with Engineer employs in case the Department does not consider it expedient to send troops for the purpose. At his request I have made an estimate of the cost, as follows:

* * * *

Total for the first month......................... $1,600
The second month will be.......................... 1,050

I consider it proper to give you the above information, in order that you may be fully aware of what is transpiring.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J.G. FOSTER,
Captain of Engineers.

[Indorsement.]



"Return to Governor Floyd."



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November 28, 1860 - Adj. Gen. Samuel Cooper to Major Robert Anderson

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Union Correspondence, etc.

ADJUTANT-GENERAL'S OFFICE,
November 28, 1860.

Major ROBERT ANDERSON,
U.S. Army, &c., Fort Moultrie:

MAJOR: Your letter of the 24th instant has been received and submitted to the Secretary of War. It is now under consideration, the result of which will be duly communicated to you. In the mean time authority has been given by the Engineer Bureau to Captain Foster to send to Castle Pinckney the Engineer workmen, as suggested by you, for purposes of repairs, &c.

The Secretary desires that any communications you may have to make of the information of the Department be addressed to this office, or to the Secretary himself.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

S. COOPER,
Adjutant-General.

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November 28, 1860 - Captain Horatio Wright to Captain John Foster

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Union Correspondence, etc.

ENGINEER DEPARTMENT,
Washington,
November 28, 1860.

Captain J.G. FOSTER,
Corps of Engineers, Charleston S.C.:

CAPTAIN: Your letter of the 24th instant has ben received, and in reply I have to say that you are authorized to make the repairs which you report as necessary to Castle Pinckney, and that, as recommended in your letter, you are authorized to organize a working force of an officer, four mechanics, and thirty laborers.

To meet the expenditures at that work, specified in your estimate, the sum of $1,800 will be furnished you from the appropriation for "Contingencies of fortifications."

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

H.G. WRIGHT,
Captain of Engineers, in charge.

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November 28, 1860 - Major Robert Anderson to Adj. Gen. Samuel Cooper

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Union Correspondence, etc.

No. 2.]
FORT MOULTRIE, S.C.,
November 28, 1860.

Colonel S. COOPER,
Adjutant-General U.S.A.:

COLONEL: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of the 24th instant. I presume that my letter of the 23rd has been received,and that the Department is now in possession of my views in reference to the measures I deem advisable and necessary for keeping this work and this harbor. Your letter confines my answer to what refers to the work under my charge. I cannot but remark that I think its security from attack would be more greatly increased by throwing garrisons int o Castle Pinckney and Fort Sumter than by anything that can be done in strengthening the defenses of this work. There are several intelligent and efficient men in this community, who, by intimate intercourse with our Army officers, have become perfectly well acquainted with his fort, its weak points, and the best means of attack. There appears to be a romantic desire urging the South Carolinians to have possession of this work, which was so nobly defended by their ancestors in 1776; and the State, if she determines to act on the aggressive, will exert herself to take this work. The accompanying report exhibits the present state of my command. I think I can rely upon their doing their duty, but you will see how sadly deficient we are in numbers, whether to repel a coup de main or to maintain a siege. We finished mounting our guns this morning, and I shall soon commence drilling and exercising my men in firing with muskets and cannon. I find that in consequence of sickness, &c., very little military duty has been attended to here to for a long time; we shall try, and I hope to succeed in regaining the lost ground. This work, when Captain Foster finishes the ditch, counterscarp, and bastionettes on which he is now at work, and executes the addition of a half battery at the northwest angle of the fort, which I have urged him to commence immediately, will be in good condition. I would have preferred having a ditch (wet), but the quicksand. i will send a requisition in a few days (I am very constantly occupied now) for certain ordnance stores. Among them I shall embrace a couple of Coehorns, say four mountain howitzers and twenty of the heaviest revolvers, with a supply of ammunition. I believe that we have no muskets for firing several charges. I would have been pleased to get four of them for the half bastion, but if there are none I will replace them by something else. I would like to get these articles as soon as possible, as I wish to practice our men with the different arms I may have to use. God forbid, though, that I should do so. Colonel Huger has just left me; he came down stating that there was the greatest excitement in the city on account of a rumor that the Adger was bringing out four companies. Some of the gentlemen were in favor of taking steamers and going out to intercept the Adger. he has just returned. I told him that I had no intelligence of anything of the kind.

In reply to the suggestion of the honorable Secretary about the expediency of employing reliable persons not connected with he military service, for purposes of fatigue and police, I must say that I doubt whether such could be obtained here. They would certainly be of great assistance to us. The excitement here is too great. Captain Foster informs me that an adjutant of a South Carolina regiment applied to him for his rolls, stating that the wished to enroll the men for military duty. The captain told him that they had not right ot do it, as the men were in the pay of the United States Government. I presume that every able-bodied man in this part of the State, not in the service of the General Government, is now being or has been enrolled.

I will thank the Governor to give me special instructions reference to a question which may arise in these cases:

What shall I do if the State authorities demand from Captain Foster men who they may aver have been enrolled into the State service? Captain Foster will probably send such cases to me; what shall I do with them?

I hope that my command will very soon be strengthened, so far at the least as filling up these companies to the legal standard. This would enable me, at all events, to have our proper garrison military duties properly attended to.

I am inclined to think that if I had been here before the commencement of expenditures on this work, and supposed that this garrison would not be increased, I should have advised is withdrawal, with the exception of a small guard, and its removal to Fort Sumter, which so perfectly commands the harbor and this fort.

I am, colonel, respectfully, your obedient servant,

ROBERT ANDERSON,
Major, First Regiment Artillery, Commanding.

Field report of command at Fort Moultrie, present this day.
Present for duty. Officers Men
Commissioned officers. 7* ... 66
Band. ... 8
Non-commissioned staff. ... 2
Non-commissioned officers. ... 17
Privates. ... 39
Sick Privates ... 2 9
Confined privates. ... 7
75

* Inclusive commanding officers, special service.
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November 28, 1860 - Captain John Foster to Colonel René De Russy

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Union Correspondence, etc.

CHARLESTON, S.C.,
November 28, 1860.

Colonel R.E. DE RUSSY,
Commanding Corps of Engineers, U.S.A., Washington, D.C.:

COLONEL: I wrote your a few days since in relation to certain contingencies of defense which might occur before long int his harbor. I only wish to add now that if the War Department decides not to send more soldiers here, but to avail itself of the Engineer force to guard Forts Sumter and Pinckney, I shall require the assistance of anther Engineer officer. For several reasons my personal attention is required at Fort Moultrie just now. i require Mr. Snyder to give his personal attention to Fort Sumter, and such other matters as arise from time to time. In all probability it will soon become necessary to confine his duties more closely to Fort Sumter, and if I have to supply men to Castle Pinckney I shall want another Engineer officer to direct their labors and duties.

It is not certain that the emergency requiring the above division of the Engineer duties under my charge will arise, but it is better to be prepared, and I would respectfully urge you to grant my request, and, if so, that I may have the services of the officer detailed as soon as possible.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J.G. FOSTER,
Corps of Engineers.

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November 30, 1860 - Captain John Foster to Colonel René De Russy

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Union Correspondence, etc.

CHARLESTON, S.C.,
November 30, 1860.

Colonel R.E. DE RUSSY,
Commanding Corps of Engineers, U.S.A., Washington, D.C.:

COLONEL: I have the honor to acknowledge ether receipt of your letter of the 28th instant, and to request that the amount desired from the "Contingencies of fortifications" for the repairs of Castle Pinckney ($1,800), for one month, may be placed to my credit with the assistant treasurer of the United States at Charleston, S.C.

I have entered upon the preliminary arrangements for commencing work, and on Monday, the 3rd of December, shall place in Castle Pinckney the number of men authorized by the Department, with all the necessary arrangements for subsistence, lodging, &c., so that they may not leave the work until they are withdrawn.

Major Anderson, at my request, has kindly consented to detail an officer to assist me until en Engineer officer can be sent me for this purpose, for I regard it as necessary that an officer can be sent me for this purpose, for I regard it as necessary that an officer shall be constantly present at this work after the repairs are commenced. Lieutenant J. C. Davis is to be detailed, and is to report to me. I trust, however, that this temporary detail will no induce any delay in sending me another officer, as Major Anderson needs the services of all in his command. I shall endeavor to have the repairs promptly made, and to secure a proper protection to the property of the United States. In doing this it will be indispensable that I have the men instructed, to a certain extent, in the service, of the guns, and also in the manual of arm,s if I can arrange with Colonel Huger to have the requisite number of muskets sent from the arsenal. I shall also have Lieutenant G. W. Snyder take up his quarters in Fort Sumter, and give like instructions to about fifty picket men, in whom I can place reliance in case of an emergency.

I beg your to understand, however, that I do not regard all these arrangements as absolutely demanded by anything that now appears, but rather as a safe precaution in view of what may appear any day, if anything more exciting than usual occurs to stimulate the extremely rash persons among a community already sufficiently upon he subject of their State relations.

I think that more troops should have been sent here to guard the forts, and I believe that no serious demonstration on the part o the populace would have met such a course. But, as it is decided not to do this, and to rely instead upon the Engineer employs for protection of the public property, I shall do everything in my power to carry out this purpose. I shall, of curse, exercise the necessary amount of prudence, and avoid any appearance of aiming, as I conceive this to be the wish of the War Department.

Very respectfully and truly, your obedient servant,

J.G. FOSTER,
Captain Engineers.

[Indorsement.]



Colonel Cooper says this has been shown to the Secretary of War.

H.G.W. [WRIGHT.]
DECEMBER 6, 1860.

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November 30, 1860 - Major Robert Anderson to Adj. Gen. Samuel Cooper

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Union Correspondence, etc.

No. 3.]
FORT MOULTRIE, S.C.,
December 1, 1860.

Colonel S. COOPER,
Adjutant-General:

COLONEL: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 28th ultimo, and regret that I have to report that hinds look more gloomy than the day at the date of my last communication. Captain Seymour, just returned from the city, reports that the excitement there is very great. Colonel E. B. White and other gentlemen, with whom he conversed, stated that the people of Charleston would not allow another man or any kind of stores to be landed at or for these forts. They say that anything which indicates a determination on the part of the General Government to act with an unusual degree of vigor in putting these works in a better state of defense will be regarded as an act of aggression, and will, as well as either of the other acts mention above, cause an attack to be made on this fort.

Two Charlestonians who were down here to-day remarked to me that as soon as the State seceded she would be taken; but that this would not be done sooner uncles some action on the part of the Government proved that it was preparing to hold possession of them.

The agent of the boat which brought the 24-pounder howitzer and ammunition is severely censured for having brought them, and the agent of the steamer james Adger was told that any vessel bringing troops here would not be safe in his harbor. Since writing the above I have seen Assistant Surgeon Crawford, who has also been in the city. He says that never until to-day did he believe that our position was critical. One of his friends told him that we would have trouble in less than fifteen days. He thinks that they will first attempt to take Fort Sumger, which they (justly) say will control this work. Castle Pinckney they regard as theirs already. Mr. King, the intentioned of this island, told the doctor that as soon as the act of secession was passed a demand would be made on me to surrender this fort. All these remarks lead to the same conclusion-a fixed purpose to have these works. The question for the Government to decide-and the sooner it is done the better-is, whether, when South Carolina secedes, these forts are to be surrendered or not. If the former, I must be informed of it, and instructed what course I am to pursue. If the latter be the determination, no time is to be lost in either sending troops, as already suggested, or vessels of war to this harbor. Either of these courses may cause some of the doubting State to join South Carolina.

I shall go steadily on, preparing for the worst, trusting hopefully in the God of Battle to guard and guide me in my course. I think it probable that in the present highly excited state of these people, the sending of the detachment of Engineer laborers to Castle Pinckney may bring on that collision which we are so anxious to avoid. I shall consult with Captain Foster on his return to the island, and if convinced that it will lead to that result, will assume the responsibility of suspending the execution of that plan for the present. This fort, in consequence of the unfinished state of our repairs, &c., is not in a condition for inviting an attack. Captain Seymour says that he is satisfied they intend erecting a battery on the upper end of this island, to command the inner channel. I do not know what course to advise. They are making every preparation (drilling nightly, &c.) for the fight which they say must take place, and insist on our not doing anything. We are now certainly too weak to fight. Were we to guard against a surprise, our men, if surrounded by only an undisciplined mob, would soon be worn out by fatigue.

I learn from Captain Ord that attempts have been made, by offers of heavy sums, to induce men at Old Point to join a Southern army. O have not heard that any attempts have been made to tamper with our men, who thus far cheerfully perform the arduous and ceaseless duties imposed upon them in consequence of the smallness of the command.

I ought, perhaps, to mention, as in indication of the expectation of the citizens of Charleston, that three fiends of the ladies of our officers have within a day or two been pressed most urgently to go to the city to stay with them there.

I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

ROBERT ANDERSON,
Major, First Artillery, Commanding.

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December 1, 1860 - Adj. Gen. Samuel Cooper to Major Robert Anderson

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Union Correspondence, etc.

ADJUTANT-GENERAL'S OFFICE,
December 1, 1860.

Major R. ANDERSON:

SIR: Your letter of November 28 has been received. The Secretary of War has directed Brevet Colonel Huger to repair to this city, as soon as he can safely leave his post, to return there in a short time. He desires you to see Colonel Huger, and confer with him prior to his departure on the matters which have been confided to each of you.

It is believe, from information thought to be reliable, that an attack will not be made on your command, and the Secretary has only to revere to his conversation with you, and to caution you that, should his convictions unhappily prove untrue, your actions must be such as to be free from the charge of initiating a collision. If attacked, you are, of course, expected to defend the trust committed to you to the best of your ability.

The increase of the force under your command, however much to be desired, would, the Secretary thinks, judging from the recent excitement produce on account of an anticipated increase,as mention din your letter, but and to that excitement, and might lead to serious results.

S. COOPER.

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December 2, 1860 - Adj. Gen. Samuel Cooper to Major Robert Anderson

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Union Correspondence, etc.

No. 4.]
FORT MOULTRIE, S.C.,
December 2, 1860.
(Received A.G.O., December 5.)

Colonel S. COOPER,
Adjutant-General:

COLONEL: I have the honor o report that I have seen Captain Foster, and that he says that he told several gentlemen in Charleston yesterday that he intended commencing at once certain reapers at Castle Pinckney. He is satisfied, from the manner in which his remark was received, that no offense will be taken at his putting his workmen in the Castle. I shall, consequently, not interpose any objection to his doing so. He has applied to me for an officer to take charge temporarily of his workmen until and Engineer officer can be sent on, and although I cannot very well spare one, i shall, in consideration of my regarding that detachment as really acting the part of an advance guard for my command, take the responsibility of assigning Lieutenant Davis to that duty.

Captain Foster thinks that he will finish the small projection at the northwest salient of this work to-morrow, and he will then reappoint the walls of this fort (a work very essential) and commence digging a shallow wet ditch at or near the foot of the wall. The presence of quicksand prevents his digging a regular ditch, but he can dig one that will afford such an obstruction as will, with ordinary precaution, prevent our works being carried by a rush.

When he has finished these works I shall feel that, by the blessing of God, even my little command will be enabled to make such a resistance that the authorities of South Carolina will, though they may surround, hardly venture to attack us. We except a full supply of provisions about the 10th of this month. I trust that such arrangements will be made as will secure their delivery, as well as that taft the supply of ordnance and ordnance recently required.

Then, with men merely enough to enable us to keep up a respectable guard without wearing our men out, I would, in humble reliance on Providence, feel ready for any emergency that could reasonably occur.

I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

ROBERT ANDERSON,
Major, First Artillery, Commanding.

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December 2, 1860 - Captain John Foster to Colonel René De Russy

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Union Correspondence, etc.

CHARLESTON, S.C., December 2, 1860.

Colonel R.E. DE RUSSY, Commanding Corps of Engineers, U.S.A., Washington, D.C.:

COLONEL: I have the honor to request that application may be made to the War Department to have Colonel Huger, Ordnance Corps, issue to me four boxes of muskets (smooth-bores), with percussion caps for sixty rounds. Fifty of these muskets are required for Fort Sumter and fifty for Castle Pinckney. The cartridge boxes and belts are not absolutely necessary, but I would like to have an equal number issued if it is Convenient to do so.

Colonel Huger, whom I consulted upon the subject of the muskets, said he could not issue them without authority from Washington, not eve for the short time that I want, and I declined at the time to request him to write for this authority; but after consulting with Major Anderson to-day we are both agreed that it is best to write for the requisite authority at once, and I therefore make the above request.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. G. FOSTER,

Captain of Engineers.

[Indorsement.]


Handed to Adjutant-General, and by him laid before the Secretary of War on the 6th of December.

Returned by the Adjutant-General on the 7th. Action deferred for the present. (See Captain Foster's letter of December 4.)
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December 3, 1860 - Major Robert Anderson to Adj. Gen. Samuel Cooper

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Union Correspondence, etc.

No. 5.]
FORT MOULTRIE, S.C.,
December 3, 1860.

Colonel S. COOPER,
Adjutant-General, U.S.A.:

COLONEL: Captains Doubleday and Seymour said to-day that when they gave me their opinions a few days ago on the feasibility of securing reliable men here to perform police and fatigue duty they did not think of some discharged soldiers, who they now say could be hired for that purpose. My opinion, as expressed, that I doubted whether any reliable men could be hired here, was based upon their opinions and upon my knowledge of the deep interest and excitement of the populace here.

I shell be placed, the, to receive authority and instructions to employ eight or ten men for the purposes suggested. This will give one relief for my guard, garrison, and battery, or interior.

Captain Foster has just reported that he left Lieutenant Davis and twenty of the detachment of laborers, designed to make repairs in Castle Pinckney, in that work, with one month's supply of provision.

Fourteen men will be added to that party to-morrow. The captain spoke of his having placed Lieutenant Davis and the party in the Castle whilst in the city, and he said that there was not the least appearance of excitement about it.

Lieutenant Davis has been cautioned to act with the greatest discretion and caution.

Hoping that everything may go on smoothly here for some time longer at least, and assuring you that I shall do everything in my power to add to the strength of my defenses,

I am, colonel, respectfully, your obedient servant,

ROBERT ANDERSON,
Major of U.S. Army.

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December 4, 1860 - Captain John Foster to Colonel René De Russy

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Union Correspondence, etc.

CHARLESTON, S.C.,
December 4, 1860.

Colonel R.E. DE RUSSY,
Commanding corps of Engineers:

COLONEL: I have been obliged to vary the plan which I indicated in my last letters as the one I intended to follow in order to carry out the wishes of the Department concerning the security of the works under my charge. In consequence of recent developments of the state of feeling among my men, I do not now judge it proper to give them any military instruction, or to place arms in their hands; at least this is the case with reference to the men at Fort Sumter. I do not thank that any of them will go so far in the defense of public property as to fight an armed body of the citizens of this State. I ascertain this for the first time, to-day, of the men in Fort Sumter, where I had been confident that I could rely in any emergency, at least upon the Baltimore mechanics, about fifty in number.

But the overseer ascertained last night that they were disinclined to use force to resists an attempt to seize the fort ont he part of the citizen soldiers of the State, although willing to resist a mob. The men in Castle Pinckney, placed there as I intended, on the 3rd instant, being picked men, may prove more reliable. But the feeling here in regard to secession is become so strong that almost all are entirely influenced by it. I therefore judge it best to suspend all idea of arming them at present. I may mention that I exercise as much care as possible in placing this working party in Castle Pinckney, so as not to give casu exercised, and the best men place there, under charge of a prudent and reliable officer, Lieutenant Davis. Every precaution is also taken at Fort Sumter, where Lieutenant Snyder has taken up his quarters. having done thus much, which is all I can do in this respect, I feel that I have done my duty, and that if any overt act takes place, no blame can properly attach to me. I regret, however, that sufficient soldiers are not in this harbor to garrison these two works. The Government will soon have to decide the question whether to maintain them or to give them up to South Carolina. If it be decided to maintain them, troops must instantly be sent, and in large numbers. If it be decided to give them up, the present arrangement will answer very well, only I should be informed, in order that I may know how to act.

At present I have given orders to Lieutenants Snyder and Davis to resist to the utmost any attempt or any demand on the forts in which they are stationed.

The plan of the leaders in this State appears to be, from all that I can see and hear, first, to demand the forts o the General Government, after secession, and then, if refused,to take them by force of arms. A quite large party is in favor of not waiting to ask the General Government, but to summon the immediate commanders, and, if refused, to attack at once. All of this is not, of course, strictly in the line of my profession; still, I judge it proper to write you fully and plainly, so that you may know exactly how we are placed. Here in Fort Moultrie the two companies of the garrison having dwindled to half their proper size, are so weak that Major Anderson demands all the auxiliary defense that I can give him. I am now digging a wet ditch around the work, which, although necessarily shallow from the quicksand, will more than double the difficulty of scaling the walls. The major also requires a fraise to be placed around the coping, but I cannot commence it until I finish the work in hand.

I shall to-morrow complete the "cut" at the northwest angle, which I have enlarged somewhat in the form of a bastionette, by building straight up from the foundation a wall at the anger, extending ten feet from the angle on each face, and then uniting by oblique returns with the very sloping face of the scarp wall. This gives a very excellent position for our or more muskets, to flank the west face of the work. The marginal sketch gives an imperfect idea of it. It is singular that a small cut, as indicated on the map in the Engineer Office, was originally built at this angle, by subsequently, and apparently not many years since, destroyed by breaking off the upper part of the side walls, throwing the debris into the cut, and covering the parapet over it. i completed to-day the bastionette at the southwest angle, except the embrasures, the stones and some of the irons for which have not yet been received. Before taking down the temporary bastionette at the southeast angle and commencing the permanent one, I shall, for the greater security of the small garrison, run out a wooden machicoulis gallery over the angel of the wall, and also complete the pointing of all large crevices in the scarp.

86 AOR001b.png

The posterns on the east and west curtains have been bricked up at Major Anderson's request, as he felt too weak to use them for sorties, and as the doors might be burst in, both the iron and wood work being old and defective.

I have been liberal of assistance in increasing the defensive capacities of the fort, for I felt that the necessity required. It I have abut 125 men at work her now, and shall continue the same number for two or three days, until I complete the ditch. On Fort Sumter I have about 115, and at Castle Pinckney 30, making a total of 260 men employed. The first of the embrasure stones for Fort Sumter having been received, the embrasures of the second tier will be immediately commenced.

Very respectfully, yours,

J.G. FOSTER,
Captain of Engineers.

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December 5, 1860 - Captain William Maynadier to Secretary John B. Floyd

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Union Correspondence, etc.

ORDNANCE OFFICE,
Washington, December 5, 1860.

Honorable JOHN B. FLOYD,
Secretary of War:

SIR: In answer to your inquiry respecting a rumor of report of the recent landing at Fort Moultrie, S.C., of a large quantity of military stores, such as cannon and boxes of ammunition, I have to state that the rumor or report has no just foundation in fact. The only cannon or ammunition, excepting a few primers, which have been ordered to Fort Moultrie since September, 1859, were four small flank howitzers with their carriages and implements, and one hundred canisters and twenty-five shells for each. These supplies were furnished on requisition from the Engineer Department of 16th October, 1860, as part of the regular armament of the fort, for the flanking caponieres, which were just finished and ready to receive them. They were ordered from the arsenals on the 20th October, 1860, but, being delayed in their and shipment, did not reach their destination till recently.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

WM. MAYNADIER,
Captain of Ordnance.

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December 6, 1860 - Captain Horatio Wright to Captain John Foster

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Union Correspondence, etc.

Washington, December 6, 1860.

Captain J.G. FOSTER,
Corps of Engineers, Charleston, S.C.:

CAPTAIN: Your letter of the 30th ultimo has been received and laid before the Secretary of War for his information.

An additional officer [Lieutenant Meade] as an assistant at Castle Pinckney has been detailed, as you have been already informed by letter of the 5th instant.

Application has been made for a remittance of $1,800 from the "Contingencies of fortifications," to be applied to the purposes of Castle Pinckney; but in the present low state of the Treasury it may be some time before it can be placed to your credit, though the amount is promised by the Treasury Department with the least practicable delay.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

H.G. WRIGHT,
Captain of Engineers, in charge.

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December 6, 1860 - Major Robert Anderson to Adj. Gen. Samuel Cooper

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Union Correspondence, etc.

No. 6.]
FORT MOULTRIE, S.C.,
December 6, 1860.

(Received A.G.O., December 10.)

Colonel S. COOPER,
Adjutant-General U.S. Army:

COLONEL: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt, on the 4th, of your communication of the 1st instant. In compliance therewith I went yesterday to the city of Charleston to confer with Colonel Huger, and I called with him upon the mayor of the city, and upon several other prominent citizens.

All seemed determined, as far as their influence or power extends, to prevent an attack by a mob on our fort; but all are equally decided in the opinion that the forts must be theirs after secession.

I shall, nevertheless, knowing how excitable this community is, continue to keep on the qui vive, as far as in my power, steadily prepare my command to the uttermost to resist any attack that may be made. As the State will probably declare itself out of the Union in less than two weeks, it seems to me that it would be well to discontinue all engineering work on this fort except such as is necessary to increase its strength. I have not pretended to exercise any control over that department, and have found Captain Foster generally disposed to accede to the suggestions I have ventured to make; and the suggestions I now make are not made in any unkind spirit towards him, as he is compelled to carry out the instructions of his department, but such as I feel it my duty to make, as being held responsible for the defense of this work. One of the bastionettes is nearly completed, now awaiting the arrival of the pintle blocks, without which the embrasure cannot be made. The foundation has only been laid for the other. I certainly think that it is now too late to begin the construction of the second one, and that it would be better to subsisted some other flanking arrangement, which can be finished in a few days.

Captain Foster is now sodding the exterior slope of the ditch, and putting muck on the glaces. It seems to me that that work had better be discontinued, and the planking, &c., removed, as it might be sued by an investing or attacking force.

In other words, I would now apply our science to devising and placing in front of an on our walls every available means of embarrassing and preventing an enemy scaling our low walls. Anything that will obstruct has advance will be of great advantage our weak garrison.

Our time is short enough for what we have to do. Should the ordnance stores I have called for or re-enforcements not arrive, in the event of our being attacked I fear that we shall not distinguish ourselves by holding out many days.

I have not yet commenced leavening off the sand hills which, within one hundred and sixty yards to the east, command this fort. Would my doing this be construed into initiating a collision? I would thank you also to inform me under what circumstances I would be justified in setting fire to or destroying the houses which afford dangerous shelter to an enemy, and whether I would be justified in firing upon an armed body which may be seen approaching our works.

Captain Foster told me yesterday that he found that the men of his Fort Sumter force, who he thought were perfectly reliable, will not fight if an armed force approaches that work; and I fear that the same may be anticipated from the Castle Pinckney force.

I learn that in consequence of the decayed condition of the carriages at Fort Sumter, the guns have not been mounted there as I reported they were to have been. If that work is not to be garrisoned, the guns certainly ought not to be mounted, as they may be turned upon us.

The remark has, I hear, been repeatedly made in the city that if they need heavy guns, they can get them in forty-eight hours. This, I suppose, refers to their being able to bring them from Fort Pulaski, mouth of the Savannah River.

Colonel Huger designs, I think, leaving Charleston for Washington to-morrow night. He is more hopeful of a settlement of impending difficulties without bloodshed than I am. Hoping in God that he may be right in his opinion.

I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

ROBERT ANDERSON,
Major, First Artillery, Commanding.

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December 6, 1860 - Adj. Gen. Samuel Cooper to Major Robert Anderson

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Union Correspondence, etc.

ADJUTANT-GENERAL'S OFFICE,
December 6, 1860.

Major R. ANDERSON,
U.S. Army, Fort Moultrie, Charleston, S.C.:

MAJOR: Your letter of the 3rd instant, in relation to police, has been received; is approved by the Secretary of War to the extent you desire.

I am, &c.,

S. COOPER,
Adjutant-General.

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December 6, 1860 - Major Robert Anderson to Adj. Gen. Samuel Cooper

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Union Correspondence, etc.

No. 7.]
FORT MOULTRIE, S.C.,
December 9, 1860.

(Received A.G.O., December 12.)

Colonel S. COOPER,
Adjutant-General:

[SIR:] I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 6th instant, and to state that I have directed the A.A.Q.M. to hire men to perform police and fatigue duty at this post, and to send on a special estimate for funds to pay them.

I hear that the attention of the South Carolinians appears to be turned more toward Fort Sumter than it was, and it is deemed probable that their first act will be to take possession of that work.

The idea of attempting to take this place by a coup de main appears not to be so favorably regarded as it was, and they will perhaps determine to besiege us. To enable them to do this they must procured heavy guns, which they can get (if not from Fort Sumter and Castle Pinckney) from Pulaski or some other southern fort. Anything that can be done which will cause delay in their attack will give time for deliberation and renegotiation, and may, by God's blessing, save the shedding of blood. I would therefore respectfully suggest whether it might not be advisable and prudent to cause the ammunition, except what may be needed for the defense of this fort and the armament of Fort Sumter and Castle Pinckney, to be destroyed or rendered unserviceable before they are permitted to fall into their hands. The same may be advisable at those forts from whence supplies might be brought to Charleston. Fort Sumter is a tempting prize, the value of which is well known to the Charlestonians, and once in their possession, with its ammunition and armament and walls uninjured and garrisoned properly, it would set our Navy at defiance, compel me to abandon this work, and give them the perfect command of this harbor.

Captain Foster having received the pintle stones of his bastionette guns, will now finish the one he has been at work on. Our supply of provisions has not arrived. I hope that it will soon be in. If we do not hear of it in a few days, I shall have to direct the A.A. commissary to make some purchases in Charleston.

I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

ROBERT ANDERSON,
Major, First Artillery, Commanding.

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December 11, 1860 - Asst. Adj. Gen. Don Buell to Major Robert Anderson

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Union Correspondence, etc.

FORT MOULTRIE, S.C.,
December 11, 1860.

Memorandum of verbal instructions to Major Anderson, First Artillery, commanding at Fort Moultrie, S.C.

You are aware of the great anxiety of the Secretary of War that a collision of the troops with the people of this State shall be avoided, and of his studied determination to pursue a course with reference to the military force and forts in this harbor which shall guard against such a collision. He has therefore carefully abstained from increasing the force at this point, or taking any measures which might add to the present excited state of the public mind, or which would throw any doubt on the confidence he feels that South Carolina will not attempt, by violence, to obtain possession of the public works or interfere with their occupancy. But as the counsel and acts of rash and impulsive persons may possibly disappoint those expectations of the Government, he deems it proper that you should be prepared with instructions to meet so unhappy a contingency. He has therefore directed me verbally to give you such instructions.[1]

You are carefully to avoid every act which would needlessly tend to provoke aggression; and for that treason you are not, without evident and imminent necessity, to take up any position which could be construed into the assumption of a hostile attitude. But you are to hold possession of the forts in this harbor, and if attacked you are to defend yourself to the last extremity. The smallness of your force will not permit you, perhaps, to occupy more than one of the three forts, but an attack on or attempt to take possession of any one of them will be regarded as an act of hostility, and you may then put your command into either of them which you may deem most proper to increase its power of resistance. You are also authorized to take similar steps whenever you have tangible evidence of a design to proceed to a hostile act.

D.C. BUELL,
Assistant Adjutant-General.


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December 12, 1860 - Colonel René de Russy to Captain John Foster

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Union Correspondence, etc.

ENGINEER DEPARTMENT,
Washington, December 12, 1860.

Captain J.G. FOSTER,
Corps of Engineers, Charleston, S.C.:

SIR: In compliance with request communicated by your letter of the 8th instant, application has been made for $5,000, to be remitted to the assistant treasurer at Charleston, to be held subject to your check, and that amount will be charged to you on account of Fort Sumter.

The Secretary of the Treasury is, of course, fully inform as to the amount of funds in each of the Government depositories, and the Department cannot, therefore, with proper courtesy to him, urge a remittance to you on the ground that there are funds at Charleston while he, with the fullest knowledge of all the facts, and of other public wants, declines to draw on them.

A special application in your behalf for $1,800 from "Contingencies of fortifications" has already been made at the Treasury, without other result than an assurance that that amount would be sent to you "if practicable," and nothing more can now be done than issue the usual request for the $5,000 last asked for.

Congress, it is hoped, will very soon adopt some means of relief for the present condition of things, and no doubt is entertained that all demands upon he Treasury which are no in suspense will then be met with the least possible delay.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R.E. DE RUSSY,
Lieutenant-Colonel, Engineers, Commanding.
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December 13, 1860 - Captain John Foster to Colonel René de Russy

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Union Correspondence, etc.

FORT MOULTRIE, S.C., December 13, 1860.

Colonel R.E. DE RUSSY, Commanding Corps of Engineers, &c.:

COLONEL: I have the honor to inform you that Lieutenant R. K. Meade, Corps of Engineers, reported to me for duty on the 10th instant, I placed him in charge of Castle Pinckney the next day, and relieved Lieutenant J. C. Davis from his temporary duty at that post. The work at the Castles is progressing satisfactorily at present, although I have up to this time been delayed on account of one firm in town refusing to shell me, as the agent of the United States, some lumber, which I was expecting, and very much needed. I have made arrangements to obtain the requisite quantity of lumber elsewhere, and have transferred the bricks and cement from Fort Sumter. The work on the cistern is already commenced, and that on the wooden banquettes will commence to-morrow. In the mean time, while waiting for materials, the force has been employed in perfecting the messing arrangements, putting the fort in thorough police order, and oiling and working the gun carriages, so that they now move with perfect facility.

The men for this working party wee picked, and the majority of them are reliable against the disorderly attack of any mob to possess itself of the work. My confidence in them has increased within a few days.

A strict night watch is maintained, and during the daytime a man stands at the gate to prevent interested persons entering and inspecting the fort and its arrangements for defense. This latter precaution I have found to be necessary on account of numbers of men connected with the military, who came for the purpose of obtaining knowledge to use against the defenders of the for tin case of a collision with the Government. I have given the same instructions to Lieutenant Snyder, at Fort Sumter, with reference to which the above precaution became necessary first.

At Fort Sumter everything is going on smoothly, although I have purposely delayed the mounting of the guns, for the reason that I did nor consider it safe to proceed with that work until some definite idea was obtained as to whether the work was to be maintained or not. Consequently, only the guns of the left face, which do not bear towards Fort Moultrie directly, are mounted in the first tier, although every preparation is made to mount all the guns in the shortest possible time when it is necessary and safe so to do.

I think the temper and disposition of the men at Fort Sumter, are very good-better than a few days ago. They will defend the fort, as far as possible, without arms, against a mob, but not against the organized forces of South Carolina.

I have endeavored to strengthen the conservative feeling among the men through the overseer, and have succeeded to a certain extent, and I now consider this fort and Castle Pinckney safe until it comes to the solution of the question whether the Government is to surrender them to the State or to refuse her demands. At that time only United States troops, and in good numbers, will be sufficient to overawe an attempt to take them by force.

I hope the Department will not think me too explicit in my terms, for I wish to avoid any unnecessary alarm, but I feel it my duty to state my convictions, in order that it may have full information for its action. I would respectfully, but strongly, urge that more definite instructions be given me for my guidance. If Fort Sumter is to be risked against the chances of an attack, it will be important to vary my programme, and to change the deposit of a large portion of its stores, and to provide for the exigency of its loss. If not, I will cheerfully prepare to defend it to extremity until troops arrive for its garrison. If the garrison in Fort Moultrie is to be transferred, I should know it, in order to stop the heavy expense at Fort Moultrie, which in that case will become unnecessary, and which is now fast consuming my available funds. I can also, in that case, proceed in the armament of Fort Sumter.

At Fort Moultrie I have continued my heavy operations, and have employed one hundred and twenty men. The accessory defenses that I have created and am now perfecting are very important to the defense, and I trust the Department will approve my action. They comprise, besides the works ordered by the Department, the formation of a wet ditch, fifteen feet wide, all around the fort, the depth of which is very small in consequence of the quicksand which is reached, but which is very yielding to pressure, like a quagmire, and, therefore, a good obstacle; the construction of a picket fence all around the fort bordering the ditch, and protected from fire by a small glaces in front of it; the cutting off the projecting brick cordon, which might serve to aid in scaling the oblique face of the wall; the formation of a bastionette at the northwest anger, so as to obtain a more effective flanking fire than could be obtained by a small cut in the parapet, and the formation of a temporary machicoulis gallery at the southeast angel.

All of these auxiliary defenses, except the picket fence, will be completed in four days, and will vastly improve the chances for the defense. With a sufficient war garrison I would consider this fort as secure against any attack that this State can bring against it; but the garrison is a mere handful of sixty men, and can hardly spare five men to two flanking caponieres-a fact that has influenced me in forming the machicoulis gallery at the southeast angel, as this can be defended and the wall flanked by two or three men, who can also be ready to rally any poi with the rest of the garrison.

In fine, I have spared no pains to give every assistance to the defense. I decline dot make a fraise around the coping, for the reason that its effect would be to diminish the width of the wet ditch, since the same length of ladder that would catch on the points and enable the assailants to mount would not otherwise strike the wall more than half the way up. If time spares I shall widen the ditch one or two feet and plant small pickets within it.

I have saved all my cement barrels to be used in forming merlons, if necessary, and some of them are now being sued by the garrison on the east front, facing the sand hills, to form covers for a few sharpshooters upon the parapet.

I hope funds will soon be sent me for the present month. I should think the United States Treasurer could issue his warrant against the deposit in Charleston for what money I require, for the assistant treasurer, Mr. Presley, informed me that he had ample funds in hand.

I exchanged a draft on New York for gold to-day, in order to pay the men on Fort Sumter. The bank made the exchange at par.

Very respectfully and truly,

J. G. FOSTER, Captain, Engineers.


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December 14, 1860 - Adj. Gen. Samuel Cooper to Major Robert Anderson

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Union Correspondence, etc.

ADJUTANT-GENERAL'S OFFICE,
Washington, December 14, 1860.

Major ANDERSON,
First Artillery, Commanding Fort Moultrie, Charleston, S.C.:

SIR: The Secretary of War directs me to give the following answers to certain questions contained in your letters:

If the State authorities demand any of Captain Foster's workmen on the ground of their being enrolled into the service of the State, and the subject is referred to you, you will, after fully satisfying yourself that the men are subject to enrollment, and have been properly enrolled under the laws of the United States, and of the State of South Carolina, cause them to be delivered up or suffer them to depart.

If deemed essential to the more perfect defense of the work, the leveling of the sand hills which command the fort would not, under ordinary circumstances, be considered as initiating a collision. but the delicate question of its bearing on the popular mind, in its present excited state, demands the coolest and wisest judgment. The fact of the sand hills being private property, and, as is understood, having private residences built upon them, decides the question in the negative. The houses which might afford dangerous shelter to an enemy, being chiefly frame, could be destroyed by the heavy guns of the fort at any movement, while the fact of their being leveled in anticipation of an attack might betray distrust, and prematurely bring on a collision. Their destruction at the moment of being used as a cover for an enemy would be more fatal to the attacking force than if swept away before their approach.

An armed body, approaching for hostile purposes, would, in all probability, either attempt a surprise or send a summons to surrender. In the former case, there can be no doubt as to the course to be pursued.

In the latter case, after refusal to surrender and a warning to keep off, a further advance by the armed body would be initiating a collision on their part.

If no summons be made by them, their purpose should be demanded at the some time that they are warned to keep off, and their failure to answer and further advance would throw the responsibility upon them.

I am, &c.,

S. COOPER,
Adjutant-General.

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December 14, 1860 - Major Robert Anderson to Adj. Gen. Samuel Cooper

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Union Correspondence, etc.

FORT MOULTRIE, S.C.,
Friday, December 14, 1860.

Colonel S. COOPER, Adjutant-General U.S. Army:

DEAR COLONEL: I inclose herewith a slip from the Charleston Mercury of 13th instant, mentioning from Washington correspondent Major Bell's [Buell's] mission to this place.

I told the major that it was likely they would get an inkling of it. I merely send this to show you the almost impossibility of keeping anything secret. Nothing here worthy of an "official"-a calm before the storm. Many think no attack will be made on me until after they are in position in Fort Sumter, and that they will drive me out with her guns. It is all conjecture. I shall, of course, prepare here for the worst.

All well and in fine spirits.

Yours, truly,

ROBERT ANDERSON.

[Inclosure.]

December 10, 1860 - Article clipping from the Mercury Sun Newspaper

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Union Correspondence, etc.

FROM WASHINGTON.

WASHINGTON, December 10.

Mr. EDITOR: A caucus was held here a few nights since of Senators and Representatives from the cotton States. It numbered about twenty-six, and represented the States of Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, and North Carolina, and upon the question of the necessity of the immediate secession of South Carolina there was not a dissenting voice.

Major Bell [Buell] and several other officers of the Army have been sent to Fort Moultrie to look after the forts and keep a sharp lookout upon them. They were sent for no good to us. See that they made no change in the distribution of soldiers, so as to put them all in Fort Sumter. That would be dangerous to us.

Yours,

CHARLES.

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December 10, 1860 - Article clipping from the Mercury Sun Newspaper

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Union Correspondence, etc.

FROM WASHINGTON.

WASHINGTON, December 10.

Mr. EDITOR: A caucus was held here a few nights since of Senators and Representatives from the cotton States. It numbered about twenty-six, and represented the States of Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, and North Carolina, and upon the question of the necessity of the immediate secession of South Carolina there was not a dissenting voice.

Major Bell [Buell] and several other officers of the Army have been sent to Fort Moultrie to look after the forts and keep a sharp lookout upon them. They were sent for no good to us. See that they made no change in the distribution of soldiers, so as to put them all in Fort Sumter. That would be dangerous to us.

Yours,

CHARLES.

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December 18, 1860 - Clerk J.J. Combs to Secretary John Floyd

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Union Correspondence, etc.

COMMITTEE ON MILITARY AFFAIRS,
December [18], 1860.

Honorable J.B. FLOYD:

SIR: You will oblige me very much by furnishing me the information asked for in the inclosed resolution. I should think myself derelict in my duty to the House and the country if I did not, in the present perilous condition of the country, obtain all the information in my power in relation to its military defenses. The House may call on me any day, as the organ of the Military Committee, for information, and I feel very anxious to be put in possession of reliable information on the subject.[1]

Very respectfully, yours, &c.,

B. STANTON.

[Inclosure.]

December 18, 1860 - Resolution adopted by the Committee on Military Affairs of the House of Representatives

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Union Correspondence, etc.

Resolution adopted by the Committee on Military Affairs of the House of Representatives, December 18, 1860.

Resolved, That the Secretary of War be requested to furnish the Committed on Military Affairs of the House of Representatives with a statement of the condition of the defenses at Fort Moultrie, Castle Pinckney, and Fort Sumter, the number of men, and the quantity and description of ordnance and arms in each; also, the number and description of arms in the Charleston Arsenal, and what officer has charge of the custody and control of said arsenal, and what force he has under his control to enable him to protect and defend it; also, what number and description of arms has been distributed since the 1st day of January, A. D. 1860, and to whom, and at what price, so far as in his judgment may be compatible with the public welfare.

A true copy from the journal of the committee.

J.J. COMBS, Clerk.

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December 18, 1860 - Resolution adopted by the Committee on Military Affairs of the House of Representatives

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Union Correspondence, etc.

Resolution adopted by the Committee on Military Affairs of the House of Representatives, December 18, 1860.

Resolved, That the Secretary of War be requested to furnish the Committed on Military Affairs of the House of Representatives with a statement of the condition of the defenses at Fort Moultrie, Castle Pinckney, and Fort Sumter, the number of men, and the quantity and description of ordnance and arms in each; also, the number and description of arms in the Charleston Arsenal, and what officer has charge of the custody and control of said arsenal, and what force he has under his control to enable him to protect and defend it; also, what number and description of arms has been distributed since the 1st day of January, A. D. 1860, and to whom, and at what price, so far as in his judgment may be compatible with the public welfare.

A true copy from the journal of the committee.

J.J. COMBS, Clerk.

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December 18, 1860 - Major Robert Anderson to Adj. Gen Samuel Cooper

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Union Correspondence, etc.

No. 8.]
FORT MOULTRIE, S.C., December 18, 1860.
(Received A.G.O., December 21.)

Colonel S. COOPER, Adjutant-General:

COLONEL: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 14th instant, giving answers to questions contained in my letters.

In reference to the instruction given me in reply to my question about Captain Foster's men, it would appear that I had not stated the matter with sufficient distinctness.

As I understood it, the South Carolina authorities sought to enroll as a part of their army intended to act against the force of the United States, men who are employed by and in the pay of the Government, and could not, as I conceived, be enrolled by South Carolina "under the laws of the United States and of the State of South Carolina.:

The sand hills referred to are private property, but no houses are built upon them; they are in front of or between houses. I, of course, shall not remove them until convinced that an attack will be made, nor shall I resort to the extreme measure of burning or destroying houses except on the same assurance, and then only such as mask positions where batteries may be erected, or such, as in my opinion, cannot be permitted to remain without endangering my command, which is so small that I cannot afford to spare a man.

The sand hills and the houses surrounding the fort will afford safe shelter for sharpshooters, who may, with ordinary good luck, pick off the major part of my little band, if we stand to our guns, in a few hours.

We are busily at work erecting traverses, defoliating our work, increasing the height of our walls, and securing protection for our men and guns by means of barrels filled with sand.

As Captain Foster tells me that he reports all his operations to the Engineer Department, I presume that the War Department is fully informed on these matters.

As the subject may be referred to by the letter writers and by the Charleston press, it may be proper that I should state that captain Foster mentioned to me this morning that he had obtained yesterday from the Charleston Arsenal forty muskets for Fort Sumter and Castle Pinckney, and that they had been brought down without causing any excitement. He said that they were derived in compliance with an order issued, I think, before my arrival. This evening he sawed me a letter from the military storekeeper, which stated that the fact of his having sent off those muskets had produced great excitement in the city, and that he had felt obliged to pledge his word that they should be returned by to-morrow night. He states that Colonel Huger had directed him not to let any arms be removed from the arsenal.

I told Captain Foster that my instructions were hat I was not to do anything calculated to produce excitement, and that as he had asked my advice I would certainly advise him to return them. He left time stating that he would do so.

I have not heard whether the ordnance stores asked for are to be sent. I can only say that they are absolutely necessary to enable me to make a respectable attempt at a defense.

I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

ROBERT ANDERSON,
Major, First Artillery, Commanding.'

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December 18, 1860 - Colonel René De Russy to Captain John Foster

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Union Correspondence, etc.

FORT MOULTRIE, S.C., December 18, 1860.

Colonel R.E. DE RUSSY,
Commanding Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army, Washington, D.C.:

COLONEL: I have the honor to inclose two letters received to-day from F.C. Humphreys, esq., military storekeeper at the Charleston Arsenal.

The first accompanied an invoice of forty muskets and accouterments, upon a requisition made by me, and in accordance with an order received some time since. The second was made subsequent to intimations of violent demonstrations, made by General Schnierle (and others, perhaps), if the muskets were not returned. General Schnierle assured Mr. Humphreys that Colonel Huger, Ordnance Corps, U.S. Army, had assured the governor of the State that no arms should be removed from the arsenal, and upon this Mr. Humphreys assured General Schnierle that the muskets should be returned to-morrow.

Now, I have no official knowledge (or positive personal evidence, either) that Colonel Huger assured the governor that no arms should be removed from the arsenal, nor that, if he did so, he spoke by authority of the Government; but, on the other hand, I do know that an order was given to issue to me forty muskets; that I actually needed them to ordnance sergeants under them at Fort Sumter and Castle Pinckney, and that I have them in my possession. To give them up on a demand of this kind seems to me as an act not expected of me by the Government, and as almost suicidal under the circumstances. It would place the two forts under my charge at the mercy of a mob. Neither of the ordnance sergeants at Fort Sumter and Castle Pinckney had muskets until I got these, and Lieutenants Snyder and Meade were likewise totally destitute of arms.

I propose to refer the matter to Washington, and am to see several gentlemen who are prominent in this matter to-morrow. I am not disposed to surrender these arms under a threat of this king, especially when I know that I am only doing my duty to the Government. If the violent persons in the city seize upon this opportunity to excite the mob to acts of violence the property of the United States, or those having it in charge, it will only be as that which must soon occur, and which they have actually been looking for.

I must say plainly that I have for some days arrived at the conclusion that unless some arrangement is shortly made by Congress, affairs in this State will arrive at a crisis, and a conflict between the Federal forces and the troops of this State be a not improbable event.

I have endeavored to keep you fully informed of my efforts to prepare for it, and of this I will write more fully to-morrow.

Very respectfully, yours,

J.G. FOSTER,
Captain of Engineers.

[Inclosure No. 1.]

December 18, 1860 - Captain F.C. Humphreys to Captain John Foster

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Union Correspondence, etc.

CHARLESTON ARSENAL, S.C.,
December 18, 1860.

Captain J.G. FOSTER,
U.S. Engineer Corps, Sullivan's Island, S.C.:

DEAR CAPTAIN: The shipmen of the forty muskets, &c., has caused intense excitement. General Schnierle called upon me this morning, and assures me that some violent demonstration is certain unless the excitement can be allayed, and says that Colonel Huger assured the governor that no arms should be removed from this arsenal. As the order under which I made the issue to you was dated prior to Colonel Huger's visit here, I am placed in rather a delicate position. I have pledged my word that they (the forty muskets and accouterments) shall be returned by to-morrow night, and I beg that you will return them to me. I informed General Schnierle that you only desired two muskets, but that I could not issue them without the proper order, but that I had an old order covering the issue of the forty. In views of my pledge that the muskets shall be returned, and the position which Colonel Huger is placed by the issue, I feel satisfied that you will comply with my request. In haste.

Very truly, yours,

F.C. HUMPHREYS,
Military Storekeeper Ordnance, U.S. Army.

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[Inclosure No. 2.]

December 18, 1860 - Captain John Foster to Captain F.C. Humphreys

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Union Correspondence, etc.

FORT MOULTRIE, December 18, 1860.

F.C. HUMPHREYS, Esq.,
Military Storekeeper, Charleston Arsenal:

DEAR SIR: I have received your note of this date, begging me to return to the arsenal the forty musket which I obtained yesterday (in accordance with an order from the Ordnance Department, issued some time since), because of a threatened violent demonstration on the part of some persons of Charleston. you state that Colonel Huger, of the Ordnance (as General Schnierle asserts to you), assured the governor that no arms should be removed form the arsenal, and that as the above assurance of Colonel Huger was made subsequent to the receipt of the order for the issue of these muskets to me, you have pledge you word that they shall be returned to the arsenal to-morrow. If Colonel Huger made this pledge to the governor of this State, I presume he must have acted by the authority of the Government; but of this I have no direct knowledge. All I know is that an order was given to issue forty muskets to me, that I actually required them to protect the property of the Government against a mob, and that I have them in my possession. To give them back now, without proper authority, would subject me to blame if any loss should occur which might be prevented by keeping them. I am willing to refer the matter to Washington. I am sorry to be obliged to disappoint you and will call to assure you so to-morrow at 12 o'clock, a which time I shall be happy to meet General Schnierle, if he is disposed to see me.

Very truly, yours,

J.G. FOSTER,
Captain of Engineers.

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December 18, 1860 - Captain F.C. Humphreys to Captain John Foster

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Union Correspondence, etc.

CHARLESTON ARSENAL, S.C.,
December 18, 1860.

Captain J.G. FOSTER,
U.S. Engineer Corps, Sullivan's Island, S.C.:

DEAR CAPTAIN: The shipmen of the forty muskets, &c., has caused intense excitement. General Schnierle called upon me this morning, and assures me that some violent demonstration is certain unless the excitement can be allayed, and says that Colonel Huger assured the governor that no arms should be removed from this arsenal. As the order under which I made the issue to you was dated prior to Colonel Huger's visit here, I am placed in rather a delicate position. I have pledged my word that they (the forty muskets and accouterments) shall be returned by to-morrow night, and I beg that you will return them to me. I informed General Schnierle that you only desired two muskets, but that I could not issue them without the proper order, but that I had an old order covering the issue of the forty. In views of my pledge that the muskets shall be returned, and the position which Colonel Huger is placed by the issue, I feel satisfied that you will comply with my request. In haste.

Very truly, yours,

F.C. HUMPHREYS,
Military Storekeeper Ordnance, U.S. Army.

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December 18, 1860 - Captain John Foster to Captain F.C. Humphreys

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Union Correspondence, etc.

FORT MOULTRIE, December 18, 1860.

F.C. HUMPHREYS, Esq.,
Military Storekeeper, Charleston Arsenal:

DEAR SIR: I have received your note of this date, begging me to return to the arsenal the forty musket which I obtained yesterday (in accordance with an order from the Ordnance Department, issued some time since), because of a threatened violent demonstration on the part of some persons of Charleston. you state that Colonel Huger, of the Ordnance (as General Schnierle asserts to you), assured the governor that no arms should be removed form the arsenal, and that as the above assurance of Colonel Huger was made subsequent to the receipt of the order for the issue of these muskets to me, you have pledge you word that they shall be returned to the arsenal to-morrow. If Colonel Huger made this pledge to the governor of this State, I presume he must have acted by the authority of the Government; but of this I have no direct knowledge. All I know is that an order was given to issue forty muskets to me, that I actually required them to protect the property of the Government against a mob, and that I have them in my possession. To give them back now, without proper authority, would subject me to blame if any loss should occur which might be prevented by keeping them. I am willing to refer the matter to Washington. I am sorry to be obliged to disappoint you and will call to assure you so to-morrow at 12 o'clock, a which time I shall be happy to meet General Schnierle, if he is disposed to see me.

Very truly, yours,

J.G. FOSTER,
Captain of Engineers.

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December 19, 1860 - Captain John Foster to Colonel René De Russy

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Union Correspondence, etc.

FORT MOULTRIE, S.C., December 19, 1860.

Colonel R.E. DE RUSSY,
Commanding Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army, Washington, D.C.:

COLONEL: I have the honor to inform you that I had an interview to-day with General Schnierle (general of division in this vicinity) and several other prominent citizens of Charleston, in relation to the little excitement attending the issue of forty muskets to me at he arsenal on the 17th instant.

The main facts connected with this were communicated in my letter of yesterday.

The interview to-day was satisfactory to me, as I saw that the action of General Schnierle had arise from his great desire to allay the temporary excitement among some of citizens. Although I declined to return the muskets until I was directed by the Government so to do, yet I proposed at once to refer the matter to Washington, and accordingly telegraphed to Captain Maynadier, Ordnance Corps, to inquire whether the muskets should be return to the arsenal or not. Up to this time I have received no answer. The reasons for my doing so are there: General Schnierle asserted that Colonel Huger had assured the governor of this State that no arms should be removed from the arsenal, and Captain Humphreys, military storekeeper, felt himself placed in a peculiar position from having acted contrary to the colonel's assurance, while on the other hand neither Captain Humphreys or myself had been income by Colonel Huger that he had made such assurance; neither had we any positive written testimony of the fact. To solve the question, the Ordnance Bureau must be appealed to for a decision, and I did this immediately, in order to allay, as soon as possible, any irritations that might have arisen. I was actuated in all I did by a sincere desire to remove all cause of irritation, so that if the extremists are disposed for violent measures they must force the issue themselves.

I am abating nothing of the activity of preparation in Fort Moultrie and Fort Sumter, and in fact am increasing it.

If the Department becomes aware of any change of policy in regard to this preparation in these forts, or in either of them, I beg that instructions may be given me at once, so that I may vary my operations accordingly, for my p[resent expenses are very heavy. In Fort Sumter the mounting of the guns, laying a flagging of first and second tiers of casemates, forming embrasures of second tier, and finishing the barracks is progressing regularly, and as fast as separately organized parties can work. The force will be to-morrow 150 men.

On Fort Moultrie 137 men are at work. The wet ditch is nearly completed. The foot-bridge connecting the second stories of the barracks and the guard-house, which is arranged for a citadel, is constructed. Doors are being cut through the partition walls of the barracks of the second floor, and trap-doors in the floors, and ladders made. A machicoulis gallery over the southeast tangelo is being made of palmetto logs for infantry. All the guns on the east front (facing the sand hills) are being placed in embrasure, by raising high and solid merlons, formed of cement barrels filled with sand, sods, and green hides.

Three high cavalier-like positions are also formed on this front of sharpshooters. The picket fence bordering the ditch is carried more than half around the fort, and is well protected from a destructive fire of cannon by a small glaces in front of it. The flanking howitzers are being mounted in the finished caponiere, and will be tried by firing to-morrow. Nearly all the projecting brick cordon is cut off smooth.

All of this work I have done and am doing myself, because it is necessary to be done, and the garrison is too weak to undertake any work beside the regular drills.

There is another thing which I propose to do, and of which I write to you in season, so that if you disapprove it you can have time to forbid it. I propose to connect a powerful Daniels battery with the magazine at Fort Sumter, by means of wires stretched across under water from Fort Sumter to Fort Moultrie, and to blow up Fort Sumter if it is taken by an armed force, and after Lieutenant Snyder and my men have time to escape from it.

I propose, also, to use the same battery to fire small mines around Fort Moultrie, and to explode a large mine placed in the sand hills. All of these last preparations my seem to be unnecessary, and I hope they may prove to be so in the end, but there are very strong probabilities that they may be required, and, at any rate, I regard a complete state of preparations as the surest safeguard attack.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J.G. FOSTER,
Captain, Engineers.

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December 19, 1860 - Secretary John Floyd to Major Robert Anderson

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Union Correspondence, etc.

DECEMBER 19, 1860.

Major ROBERT ANDERSON, &c., Charleston, S.C.:

I have just telegraphed Captain Foster to return any arms that he may have removed from Charleston Arsenal.

J.B. FLOYD.

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December 19, 1860 - Major Robert Anderson to Adj. Gen. Samuel Cooper

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Union Correspondence, etc.

No. 9.] FORT MOULTRIE, S.C., December 20, 1860.
(Received A.G.O., December 24.)

Colonel S. COOPER, Adjutant-General:

COLONEL: I had the honor to receive and to answer, at half past 1 o'clock this morning, a telegram from the honorable Secretary of War, dated the 19th instant. Captain Foster has, I presume, reported to the Department his compliance with his order.

The ordinance of secession passed the South Carolina Convention to-day.

We are making good progress in our defensive works on the ramparts. Captain Foster finished to-day mounting the guns in the caponiere (or bastionettes), and [will] commence the other caponiere to-morrow. In my letter (No. 6.) of December 6, I had the honor of stating my objections to commencing that work, and suggested that I thought it ought to be replaced by some work which could be built in a shorter time. No reply has been made to that suggestion, and Captain Foster says that as the project was approved by the Engineer Department and by the Secretary of War he does not feel authorized to make a change of the plan.

I regret this very much, for if an attack is made whilst that work is going on, our fort can be very easily carried. As I have stated before, I do not feel authorized to interfere with the operations of the Engineer Department.

Captain Foster informs me that Lieutenant Snyder is mounting guns at Fort Sumter as rapidly as possible. I have already given my reasons why I thought that ought not to be done, and have seen no reason for changing that opinion.

Hoping that events may take such a turn as soon to relieve me from the dangerous position my little command is now in,

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

ROBERT ANDERSON,
Major, First Artillery, Commanding.

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December 20, 1860 - Colonel René De Russy to Secretary John Floyd

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Union Correspondence, etc.

ENGINEER DEPARTMENT,
Washington, December 20, 1860.

Hon. JOHN B. FLOYD,
Secretary of War:

SIR: In reply to so much of the resolution of the Committee on Military Affairs of the House of Representatives,[1] which you have referred to this office, as relates to matters instructed to this Department, I have the honor to present the following report:

In regard to the condition of the defenses at Fort Moultrie, I have to state that, according to the latest report of the Engineer officer having charge of the construction of the defense of the harbor of Charleston, everything practicable has been done to place the work in an efficient condition, and that with a proper garrison it is susceptible of an energetic defense. There were then employed at that work one officer and one hundred and twenty workmen, independent of the regular garrison.

Castle Pinckney was in good condition as regards preparations, and, with a proper garrison, as defensible as it can be made. One officer and thirty workmen were engaged in the repair of the cisterns, replacing decayed banquettes, and attending to other matters of detail.

Fort Sumter, which is entirely surrounded by water, is prepared for the guns of the first and third tiers, many of which are mounted, and the rest may be on short notice. The working force is now engaged in putting in the embrasures of the second tier, which have been left out till recently on account of an apprehended settlement of the work. One officer and one hundred and fifteen workmen were employed at this work at the date of the last report. Of all the fortifications in the harbor of Charleston, Fort Sumter must be looked upon as by far the most important, and it is now in condition, as regards its state of preparation, to resist any attack that will be made upon it, provided it be furnished with a proper garrison.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R.E. DE RUSSY,
Lieutenant-Colonel, Engineers, Commanding.


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December 20, 1860 - Captain John Foster to Colonel René De Russy

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Union Correspondence, etc.

FORT MOULTRIE, SULLIVAN'S ISLAND, S.C.,
December 20, 1860.

Colonel R.E. DE RUSSY,
Commanding Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army, Washington, D.C.:

COLONEL: I have the honor to inform you that, after closing my letter to you last night, I received (at 2 a.m.) a telegraphic dispatch from the Secretary of War, of which the following is a copy:

"Captain JOHN G. FOSTER.

I have just received a telegraphic dispatch informing me that you have removed forty muskets from Charleston Arsenal to Fort Moultrie. If you have removed any arms, return them instantly.
Answer by telegraph.

JOHN B. FLOYD,
Secretary of War."

To this I immediately replied as follows:

"Honorable J.B. FLOYD,
Secretary of War, Washington, D.C.

I received forty muskets from the arsenal on the 17th. I shall return them in obedience to your order.

J.G. FOSTER,
Captain, Engineers."

It may be well here to explain more fully than I have heretofore done the circumstances connected with this issue of muskets to me. The Ordnance Department on the 1st of November directed that forty muskets should be issued to me. I did not receive them at that time, because Colonel Gardner, commanding at Fort Moultrie, objected to the issue on the ground that it appeared like arming my employs. On the 17th instant I went to the arsenal to obtain two guns which were required at Fort Sumter, and which Colonel Huger had directed to be delivered to me. While there I recollected that the ordnance sergeants at Fort Sumter and Castle Pinckney had applied to me for the arms to which they were entitled, and I asked the military storekeeper in charge of he arsenal for two muskets and accouterments for the those two sergeants. He replied that he had no authority for the issue of two muskets for this purpose, but that the old order for forty musket was on file, and the muskets and accouterments ready packed for delivery to me. So I received them, and after issuing the two muskets to the two ordnance sergeants at Fort Sumter and Castle Pinckney place the remainder in the magazines of those two forts. They were nothing of Colonel Huger's assurances to the governor of the State that no arms should be removed from the arsenal; neither did Captain Humphreys, military storekeeper. Consequently, I was surprised to receive his letter of the 18th, which I inclosed to you yesterday, desiring to have the muskets returned. My reply was also inclosed to you. What followed was as is described in the commencement of this letter.

To-day at 3 o'clock I received another letter from Captain Humphreys, a copy of which is inclosed, as is also my reply.

I should have mentioned above that on the 19th, when in town to see General Schnierle and allay any excitement relative to the muskets, I found to my surprise that there was no excitement except with a very few who had been active in the matter, and the majority of the gentlemen whom I met had not even heard of it.

The order of the Secretary of War of last night I must consider as decisive upon the question of any efforts on my part to defend Fort Sumter and Castle Pinckney. The defense now can only extend to keeping the gates closed and shutters fastened, and must cease when these are forced.

I do not think that I am authorized to make the preparations for extreme measures described in my letter of yesterday, but shall wait until I receive your reply.

I would earnestly, but respectfully, urge that definite instructions be given me how to act in the emergency which, from the eagerness with which rumors and other causes are seized upon to maintain and increase the political excitement, will probably arise sooner or latter. Until I am directed to the contrary, I shall continue the work as at present on Fort Sumter and the preparations for the defense of Fort Moultrie.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J.G. FOSTER,
Captain of Engineers.

[Inclosure No. 1.]

December 20, 1860 - Captain F.C. Humphreys to Captain John Foster

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Union Correspondence, etc.

CHARLESTON, S.C., December 20, 1860.

Captain J.G. FOSTER,
U.S. Engineer Corps:

DEAR SIR: During an interview with Governor Pickens this morning he asked me whether or not I could state authoritatively that there had not been twenty enlisted men sent from Fort Moultrie to Fort Sumter. I told him that my conviction was that such was not the case, and that I heard you make the statement yesterday to General Schnierle that you had but one enlisted men at Fort Sumter.

The governor requested as a favor that such assurance should be given him over the signature of an officer of the Army, and knowing that you requested General Schnierle to write you should any rumor obtain concerning you, I make known Governor Pickens' desire to you, and respectfully suggest that you send him immediately (as he said it was important that he had a [denial] of the rumor by night) such communication as you may deem best in the premises.

I regret exceedingly that you deemed it necessary to refer the matter of the issue of the forty muskets, &c., to Washington, for I know that such representations have gone on to the Department as will cause unnecessary excitement, and insure a censure of my course in the matter from the Ordnance Department.

Very respectfully, yours,

F.C. HUMPHREYS,
Military Storekeeper Ordnance, U.S. Army.

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[Inclosure No. 2.]

December 20, 1860 - Captain John Foster to Captain F.C. Humphreys

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Union Correspondence, etc.

FORT MOULTRIE, S.C., December 20, 1860.

Captain F.C. HUMPHREYS,
Military Storekeeper, U.S. Ordnance Corps:

DEAR SIR: I have received your letter of this date. I regret that I cannot accede to your request to write to the governor-elect of South Carolina and assure him that twenty enlisted men had not, as he had heard, been sent from Fort Moultrie to Fort Sumter. As the governor of a State that has by an ordinance to-day decided to secede from the Union, I cannot, I conceive, properly communicate with him in matters of this kind, except through the Government at Washington.

I regret exceedingly that an unfounded rumor of this kind should have obtained the serious attention of the governor of South Carolina. I, as the officer in charge of Fort Sumter, can assure you that no enlisted men have been transferred from Fort Moultrie to Fort Sumter.

With respect to the issue of the muskets, I consider that you only performed your duty in obedience to existing orders. I certainly think that I did mine. As to my after action in referring the matter to Washington, I am of course, the only one responsible. You cannot, therefore, be censured without cause.

Truly yours, in haste,

J.G. FOSTER,
Captain, Engineers

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[Indorsement]

December 24, 1860 - Captain Horatio Wright to Secretary John Floyd

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Union Correspondence, etc.

ENGINEER DEPARTMENT, December 24, 1860.

Respectfully submitted to the honorable Secretary of War for his information, and with the earnest request that the instructions solicited by Captain Foster may be promptly given.

H.G. WRIGHT,
Captain of Engineers, in charge.

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December 20, 1860 - Captain F.C. Humphreys to Captain John Foster

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Union Correspondence, etc.

CHARLESTON, S.C., December 20, 1860.

Captain J.G. FOSTER,
U.S. Engineer Corps:

DEAR SIR: During an interview with Governor Pickens this morning he asked me whether or not I could state authoritatively that there had not been twenty enlisted men sent from Fort Moultrie to Fort Sumter. I told him that my conviction was that such was not the case, and that I heard you make the statement yesterday to General Schnierle that you had but one enlisted men at Fort Sumter.

The governor requested as a favor that such assurance should be given him over the signature of an officer of the Army, and knowing that you requested General Schnierle to write you should any rumor obtain concerning you, I make known Governor Pickens' desire to you, and respectfully suggest that you send him immediately (as he said it was important that he had a [denial] of the rumor by night) such communication as you may deem best in the premises.

I regret exceedingly that you deemed it necessary to refer the matter of the issue of the forty muskets, &c., to Washington, for I know that such representations have gone on to the Department as will cause unnecessary excitement, and insure a censure of my course in the matter from the Ordnance Department.

Very respectfully, yours,

F.C. HUMPHREYS,
Military Storekeeper Ordnance, U.S. Army.

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December 20, 1860 - Captain John Foster to Captain F.C. Humphreys

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Union Correspondence, etc.

FORT MOULTRIE, S.C., December 20, 1860.

Captain F.C. HUMPHREYS,
Military Storekeeper, U.S. Ordnance Corps:

DEAR SIR: I have received your letter of this date. I regret that I cannot accede to your request to write to the governor-elect of South Carolina and assure him that twenty enlisted men had not, as he had heard, been sent from Fort Moultrie to Fort Sumter. As the governor of a State that has by an ordinance to-day decided to secede from the Union, I cannot, I conceive, properly communicate with him in matters of this kind, except through the Government at Washington.

I regret exceedingly that an unfounded rumor of this kind should have obtained the serious attention of the governor of South Carolina. I, as the officer in charge of Fort Sumter, can assure you that no enlisted men have been transferred from Fort Moultrie to Fort Sumter.

With respect to the issue of the muskets, I consider that you only performed your duty in obedience to existing orders. I certainly think that I did mine. As to my after action in referring the matter to Washington, I am of course, the only one responsible. You cannot, therefore, be censured without cause.

Truly yours, in haste,

J.G. FOSTER,
Captain, Engineers

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December 24, 1860 - Captain Horatio Wright to Secretary John Floyd

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ENGINEER DEPARTMENT, December 24, 1860.

Respectfully submitted to the honorable Secretary of War for his information, and with the earnest request that the instructions solicited by Captain Foster may be promptly given.

H.G. WRIGHT,
Captain of Engineers, in charge.

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DISPATCHES 51-100

December 20, 1860 - Captain William Maynadier to Secretary John Floyd

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Union Correspondence, etc.

ORDNANCE OFFICE,
Washington, December 20, 1860.

Honorable JOHN B. FLOYD,
Secretary of War:

SIR: The inclosed telegram, purporting to be from Captain J.G. Foster, the Engineer officer in charge of Fort Sumter reached me last night, and gives the first information to this office that the forty old muskets had been issued to the captain. On the contrary, the previous correspondence on the subject indicates that the issue of these muskets has not been and will not be made. On the 31st October last Colonel Craig informed you that the Engineer in charge of Fort Sumter had suggested the placing of a few small-arms in the hands of his workmen for the protection of the Government property there, and recommended that it should be done, provided that it met the concurrence of the commanding officer of the troops in Charleston Harbor. The recommendation was approved, and Colonel J.L. Gardner, then commanding at Charleston Harbor, was duly notified thereof and authorized to direct the issue if it met his approval, and to report the fact to this office. He answered under date of 5th November, 1860, and did not concur in the expediency of the issue. His letter was submitted to you on the 8th November, with the remark by the Colonel of Ordnance that "it is probable the issue has not and will not be made without further orders." No further orders have been given, and no report or other information on the subject has reached this office except the inclosed telegram. That is so indefinite (except as to the fact that Captain Foster has received the forty old muskets) as to be difficult to understand, and, consequently, to answer.[1] It does not state by whom the "little talk" about the issue was had, nor who asks Captain Foster to return the muskets. From all the indications I am doubtful about the genuineness of the dispatch. If answered at all I think the best reply will be: "If you don't want the muskets, return them."

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

WM. MAYNADIER,
Captain of Ordnance.

[Inclosure-Telegram.]

December 19, 1860 - Captain John Foster to Captain William Maynadier

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Union Correspondence, etc.

CHARLESTON, December 19, 1860.

Captain WM. MAYNADIER,
Ordnance Department:

I received from the arsenal on the 17th forty old muskets ordered to be issued to me November 1. There is some little talk about it, and I am asked to return them. Shall I return them or keep them?

J.G. FOSTER,
Captain, Engineers, U.S. Army.

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December 19, 1860 - Captain John Foster to Captain William Maynadier

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Union Correspondence, etc.

CHARLESTON, December 19, 1860.

Captain WM. MAYNADIER,
Ordnance Department:

I received from the arsenal on the 17th forty old muskets ordered to be issued to me November 1. There is some little talk about it, and I am asked to return them. Shall I return them or keep them?

J.G. FOSTER,
Captain, Engineers, U.S. Army.

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December 21, 1860 - Secretary John Floyd to Major Robert Anderson

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Union Correspondence, etc.

WAR DEPARTMENT,
Washington, December 21, 1860.

Major ANDERSON,
First Artillery, Commanding Fort Moultrie, S.C.:

SIR: In the verbal instructions communicated to you by Major Buell,[1] you are directed to hold possession of the forts in the harbor of Charleston, and, if, attacked, to defend yourself to the last extremity. Under these instructions, you might infer that you are required to make a vain and useless sacrifice of your own life and the lives of the men under your command upon a mere point of honor. This is far from the President's intentions. You are to exercise a sound military discretion on this subject.

It is neither expected nor desired that you should expose your own life or that of your men in a hopeless conflict in defense of these forts. If they are invested or attacked by a force so superior that resistance would, in your judgment be a useless waste of life, it will be your duty to yield to necessity and make the best terms in your power.

This will be the conduct of an honorable, brave, and humane officer, and you will be fully justified in such action. These orders are strictly confidential, and not to be communicated even to the officers under your command, without close necessity.[2]

Very respectfully,

JOHN B. FLOYD.

  1. See Buell's memorandum, December 11, 1860
  2. This letter delivered to Major Anderson December 23, by Captain John Withers, A.A.G.


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December 21, 1860 - Captain William Maynadier to Secretary John Floyd

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Union Correspondence, etc.

ORDNANCE OFFICE,
Washington, December 21, 1860.

Honorable JOHN B. FLOYD,
Secretary of War:

SIR: All the information called for by the letter of the Honorable B. Stanton, chairman of the Committee on Military Affairs of the House of Representatives and the accompanying resolution of that committed, dated the 18th instant, so far as it is within the purview of the Ordnance Department, will be found in the inclosed statements, viz:

No 1. Quantity and description of ordnance, and arms at each of the forts in Charleston Harbor, viz, at Fort Moultrie, at Castle Pinckney, at Fort Sumter, and at the Charleston Arsenal, with the name and grade of the officer in charge of the arsenal, and the force under his control.*

No 2. Number and description of arms distributed since the 1st of January, 1860, to the States and Territories, and at what price.*

No 3. Arms distributed by sale since 1st January, 1860, to whom sold, and at what price.*

It is deemed proper to state, in further explanation of Numbers 2, that where no distribution appears to have been made to a State or Territory, or the amount of distribution is small, it is because such State or Territory has not called for all the arms due on its quotas, and remains a creditor for dues not distributed, which can be obtained at any time on requisition therefor.

The letter of the Honorable B. Stanton, with the accompanying resolution, is returned herewith.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

WM. MAYNADIER,
Captain of Ordnance.

* See inclosure to Holt to Stanton, January 3, 1861. Nos. 2 and 3 not found.
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December 21, 1860 - Colonel René De Russy to Captain John Foster

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Union Correspondence, etc.

ENGINEER DEPARTMENT,
Washington, December 21, 1860.

Captain J.G. FOSTER,
Corps of Engineers, Charleston, S.C.:

CAPTAIN: Your letters of the 4th and 13th instants, reporting the operations you have undertaken for improving the defensible condition of the forts in Charleston Harbor, have been received, and your action in the matter is fully approved by this Department.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R.E. DE RUSSY,
Lieutenant-Colonel, Engineers, Commanding

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December 21, 1860 - Colonel René De Russy to Captain John Foster

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Union Correspondence, etc.

ENGINEER DEPARTMENT,
Washington, December 21, 1860.

Captain J.G. FOSTER,
Corps of Engineers, Charleston, S.C.:

CAPTAIN: In reply to your letter of the 17th instant, I have to state that on inquiry at the Medical Bureau it is found that there is no intention of relieving Assistant Surgeon Crawford from duty at Fort Moultrie at present, but that it is presumed he will still be willing to go on attending to your men, as he is understood to be now doing, without any specific instructions. The formal reference of your application to the Adjutant-General is therefore considered unnecessary.

Your letter of the 18th instant, inclosing correspondence with Military Storekeeper Humphreys, in regard to the return of the muskets drawn from the Charleston Arsenal, is also received.

It having been ascertained on inquiry at the War Department that instructions have already been sent you to return the muskets referred to, no further action on your letter seems to be necessary.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R.E. DE RUSSY,
Lieutenant-Colonel, Engineers, Commanding.

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December 22, 1860 - Major Robert Anderson to Adj. Gen. Samuel Cooper

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Union Correspondence, etc.

No. 10.]
FORT MOULTRIE, S.C., December 22, 1860.
(Received A.G.O., December 26.)

Colonel S. COOPER, Adjutant-General:

COLONEL: Captain Foster is apprehensive that the remarks in my letter of the 20th instant may be considered as reflecting upon him and I told him that I would cheerfully state distinctly that I do not intend to pass any criticism upon his proceedings.

I stated in my last letter fully all the reasons I intended to give against commending the second caponiere. The captain has put a very large force of masons on it, and they are running up the walls very rapidly. He says, as he has all the material on hand, the men having just completed the first one, will be enabled to construct the second caponiere as soon as they could finish any temporary work in its stead. He says that he will have the "work defensible in five more working days, and have it finished in nine more working days." God knows whether the South Carolinians will defer their attempt to take this work so long as that. I must confess that I think where an officer is placed in as delicate a position as the one I occupy that he should have the entire control over all persons connected in any way with the work intrusted to him. Responsibility and power to control ought to go together.

I have heard from several sources that last night and the night before a steamer was stationed between this island and Fort Sumter. That the authorities of South Carolina are determined to prevent, if possible, any troops from being placed in that fort, and that they will seize upon that most important work as soon as they think there is reasonable ground for a doubt whether it will be turned over to the State, I do not doubt. I think that I could, however, were I to receive instructions so to do, throw my garrison into that work, but I should have to sacrifice the greater of my stores as it is now too late to attempt their removal. Once in that work with my garrison I could keep the entrance of their harbor open until they construct works outside of me, which might, I presume, prevent vessels from coming into the outer harbor.

We have used nearly all the empty barrels which Captain Foster had wisely saved for embrasures, traverses, &c, and Captain Foster is now making use of our gun-pent houses for the same purpose, filling them with sand.

No one call tell what will be done. They may defer action until their commissioners return from Washington; or if apprised by the nature of the debates in Congress that their demands will not probably be acceded, to they may act without waiting for them.

I do not think that we can rely upon any assurances, and wish to God I only had men enough here to man fully my guns. Our men are perfectly conscious of the dangerous position they are placed in, but are in as fine spirits as if they were certain, of victory.

I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

ROBERT ANDERSON,
Major, First Artillery, Commanding.

P.S. - I have just heard that several of them at work in Fort Sumter wear the blue cockade. If they are bold enough to do that the sooner that force is disbanded the better. The public property would be safer there under Lieutenant Snyder and a few men that it now is.

R.A.

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December 22, 1860 - Captain John Foster to Colonel René De Russy

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Union Correspondence, etc.

SULLIVAN'S ISLAND, S.C., December 22, 1860.

Colonel R.E. DE RUSSY,
Commanding Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army, Washington, D.C.:

COLONEL: I feel it my duty to inform you that on the last two nights steamers from town have remained in the close vicinity of Fort Sumter, apparently with the object of maintaining guard over the fort. On the first night, that of the 20th, only one came. She approached from the direction of town, as though running for the wharf, and her movements attracting the attention of the watchman, he awoke Lieutenant Snyder, who, when he went upon the ramparts, found her close under the west flank, apparently sounding. She afterwards moved off to a second position about six hundred yards from the fort, and remained during the night. She showed no lights. On the same night this or another steamer reconnoitered and remained around Castle Pinckney for some time, and when hailed by the night watch on the Castle as to what she wanted, some one replied, "You will know in a week." Last night two steamers kept watch around Fort Sumter.

These steamers are the small harbor or coast steamers, and one of them was named the Nina. Judging it best not to incur any risk of an unpleasant occurrence, I have not taken any steps to ascertain the object of this surveillance, nor of those in command of the steamers. The recent orders emanating from the War Department have given me the assurances that every cause that might irritate these people must be avoided. However mortifying it may be to know that there are no means for defense in Fort Sumter, and that the military men of the city have their eves fixed upon it as the prize to obtain, I feel bound to carry out this idea in my every act.

I do not even feel authorized to vary my present plan of operations, either by a reduction or an increase of force, although my expenses are very heavy, and my present liabilities barely covered by my requisitions just made. Whenever the Department desires that I may make a change of operations, I beg that it may soon be communicated to me.

At Fort Moultrie I am still exerting myself to the utmost to make it so defensible as to discourage any attempts to take it. The wet ditch is now completed. The whole of the east front is now raised by solid melons, two barrels high, and in three positions to a greater height to serve for cavaliers. The guns are provided with good siege-battery embrasures, faced with green hides, and two of them 18-inch howitzers, one in addition furnished with musket-proof shutters working on an axis, elevated over the throat off the embrasure by supports on each side, and maneuvered by double extending back over the gun.

A field howitzer has been put in position on the parapet at the northeast salient by means of a palmetto stockade, so as to sweep the vicinity of that angle better than it was before. Traverses to intercept shot from the sand hills have been placed on the parapet and upon the terrepleins.

The bridge connecting the barracks and guard-house is completed, the doors arranged with fastenings, doors cut through the partition walls of the barracks, trap-doors cut in the floors, and ladders made. The howitzers in the finished caponiere are put in good working order. The second caponiere was commenced yesterday morning, with a full force of masons, and by to-night was over six feet in height, with both embrasures completed. Major Anderson wanted me to adopt some more temporary construction, but I showed him that this would be far more valuable in the defense, and having the materials and masons ready, I could construct it just as quickly, and cheaply. On Monday I shall erect a lookout tower or sharpshooter stand on top of the guard-house, at Major Anderson's request. I have stopped for the present the work upon the glaces in front of the sea front, and put all my force upon the above works. The glaces has, however, assumed fine proportions, and is in fact nearly completed. One-half of the interior slope is well sodded, and half of the glaces slope covered with muck six inches thick.

It will take very little work to complete the whole of it as soon as the present pressing work is finished.

Very truly, yours,

J.G. FOSTER,
Captain, Engineers.

[Indorsement No. 1.]

December 24, 1860 - Captain Horatio Wright to Secretary John Floyd

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Union Correspondence, etc.

ENGINEER DEPARTMENT, December 24, 1860.

Respectfully submitted to the honorable Secretary of War for his information, and with the earnest request that the instructions solicited by Captain Foster may be promptly given.

H.G. WRIGHT,
Captain of Engineers, in charge.

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[Indorsement No. 2.]

December 26, 1860 - Captain Horatio Wright to Secretary John Floyd

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Union Correspondence, etc.

ENGINEER DEPARTMENT, December 26, 1860.

Respectfully referred to the honorable Secretary of War, and his attention urgently called to the within report as one of great importance.

H.G. WRIGHT,
Captain of Engineers, in charge.

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[Indorsement No. 3.]

December 26, 1860 - Captain Horatio Wright to (Engineering Department?)

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Union Correspondence, etc.

ENGINEER OFFICE, December 26, 1860.

Have just seen the Secretary of War, and read to him the within letter. His only remarks in regard to it were that it was very satisfactory, and that he hoped or thought, I don't distinctly remember which, that we should get over these troubles without bloodshed. He further said he did not wish to retain the letter-this in answer to my question.

H.G.W.

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December 24, 1860 - Captain Horatio Wright to Secretary John Floyd

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Union Correspondence, etc.

ENGINEER DEPARTMENT, December 24, 1860.

Respectfully submitted to the honorable Secretary of War for his information, and with the earnest request that the instructions solicited by Captain Foster may be promptly given.

H.G. WRIGHT,
Captain of Engineers, in charge.

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December 26, 1860 - Captain Horatio Wright to Secretary John Floyd

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Union Correspondence, etc.

ENGINEER DEPARTMENT, December 26, 1860.

Respectfully referred to the honorable Secretary of War, and his attention urgently called to the within report as one of great importance.

H.G. WRIGHT,
Captain of Engineers, in charge.

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December 26, 1860 - Captain Horatio Wright to (Engineering Department?)

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Union Correspondence, etc.

ENGINEER OFFICE, December 26, 1860.

Have just seen the Secretary of War, and read to him the within letter. His only remarks in regard to it were that it was very satisfactory, and that he hoped or thought, I don't distinctly remember which, that we should get over these troubles without bloodshed. He further said he did not wish to retain the letter-this in answer to my question.

H.G.W.

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December 24, 1860 - Captain Horatio Wright to Captain John Foster

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Union Correspondence, etc.

ENGINEER DEPARTMENT,
Washington, December 24, 1860

Captain J.G. FOSTER,
Corps of Engineers, Charleston, S.C.:

SIR: In reply to your letter of the 20th instant* I have to say that on application at the Treasury it is ascertained that no remittance can be made to your credit until after the 28th instant, and that soon after that date all requisitions upon the Treasury will be promptly met as heretofore.

This office will omit no effort to supply you with funds at the earliest possible moment, and as soon as it is ascertained that funds can be supplied you will be promptly informed.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

H.G. WRIGHT,
Captain of Engineers, in charge.

* Asking for $10,000 on account of Fort Sumter.

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December 27, 1860 - Captain Horatio Wright to Captain John Foster

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ENGINEER DEPARTMENT,
Washington, December 27, 1860

Captain J.G. FOSTER,
Corps of Engineers, Charleston, S.C.:

CAPTAIN: I have to acknowledge the receipt of the following letters from you, viz:

1. Letter of December 20, reporting in regard to the receipt of forty muskets, &c., for Fort Sumter and Castle Pinckney, and their return to the arsenal by direction of the Secretary of War.

2. Letter of December 22, reporting that steamers from Charleston had been engaged for the last two nights in reconnoitering and watching Fort Sumter and Castle Pinckney, and also detailing the progress of you operations at Fort Moultrie toward putting that work in a defensible condition.

3. Your letter of the 19th December, not before acknowledged, presenting for the consideration of the Government a proposition for preventing the occupation of Fort Sumter by any force not acting under the authority of the United States.

These several letters have been laid before the Secretary of War, and his instructions in relation to the important matters presented therein earnestly requested. Thus far no such instructions have been received, though the Secretary expressed himself fully satisfied with the efforts you have made and the zeal you have exhibited in the trying position in which you are placed.

This Department is highly gratified with the course you have pursued, and fully approves all the steps you have taken for the security of the public interests at the fortifications in Charleston Harbor. At the same time it cannot fail to express the hope that some definite instructions may be soon given for your guidance.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

H.G. WRIGHT,
Captain Engineers, in charge.

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December 27, 1860 - Captain John Foster to Colonel René De Russy

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Union Correspondence, etc.

FORT SUMTER, S.C., December 27, 1860.

Colonel R.E. DE RUSSY,
Commanding Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army, Washington, D.C.:

COLONEL: I have the honor to report that yesterday evening Major Anderson removed his command from Fort Moultrie to Fort Sumter, leaving a guard with me, orders to spike the guns, cut down the flagstaff, and burn the carriages of those guns that point towards Fort Sumter. This was done. To-day I went to town to negotiate a draft on New York to pay off the men employed on Fort Moultrie. I saw that an attack was to be made somewhere to-night, and also that it would not be safe for me to go to town again for some time.

Returning, I brought my family to Fort Sumter, as all guard was with-drawn. At about 4 o'clock a steamer landed an armed force at Castle Pinckney, and effecting an entrance by scaling the walls with ladders, took forcible possession of the work. Lieutenant Meade was suffered to withdraw to this fort.

Soon after dark two steamers landed an armed force at Fort Moultrie, and took forcible possession of that work. While in town the Palmetto flag was hoisted on the custom-house and saluted. Two companies were ordered to surround the arsenal. The movement of Major Anderson was made upon a firm conviction that an attack would be made, and that Fort Sumter would be seized first. In haste.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J.G. FOSTER,
Captain of Engineers.

[Indorsement.]

December 28, 1860 - Commissioner Robert Barnwell et. al to President James Buchanan

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Union Correspondence, etc.

WASHINGTON, December 28, 1860.
The PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES:

SIR: We have the honor to transmit to you a copy of the full powers from the Convention of the People of South Carolina, under which we are "authorized and empowered to treat with the Government of the United States for the delivery of the forts, magazines, light houses, and other real estate with their appurtenances, within the limits of South Carolina; and also for an apportionment of the public debt and a division of all other property held by the Government of the United States as agent of the confederated States, of which South Carolina was recently a member; and, generally, to negotiate as to all other measures and arrangements proper to be made and adopted in the existing relations of the parties, and for the continuance of peace and amity between this Commonwealth and the Government at Washington."

In the execution of this trust it is our duty to furnish you, as we now do, with an official copy of the ordinance of secession, by which the State of South Carolina has resumed the powers she delegated to the Government of the United States, and has declared her perfect sovereignty and independence.

It would also have been our duty to have informed you that were ready to negotiate with you upon all such questions as are necessarily raised by the adoption of this ordinance, and that we were prepared to enter upon this negotiation with the earnest desire to avoid all unnecessary and hostile collision, and so to inaugurate our new relations as to secure mutual respect, general advantage, and a future of good will and harmony, beneficial to all the parties concerned. But the events of the last twenty-four hours render such an assurance impossible. We came here, the representatives of an authority which could at any time within the past sixty days have taken possession of the forts in Charleston Harbor, but which, upon pledges given in a manner that we cannot doubt, determined to trust to your honor rather than to its own power. Since our arrival an officer of the United States acting, as we are assured, not only without but against your orders, has dismantled one fort and occupied another, thus altering to a most important extent the condition of affairs under which we came.

Until those circumstances are explained in a manner which relieves us of all doubt as to the spirit in which these negotiations shall be conducted, we are forced to suspend all discussion as to any arrangements by which our mutual interests might be amicably adjusted.

And, in conclusion, we would urge upon you the immediate with drawl of the troops, from the harbor of Charleston. Under present circumstances they are a standing menace which renders negotiation impossible, and, as our recent experience shows, threatens speedily to bring to a bloody issue questions which ought to be settled with temperance and judgment.

We have the honor to be, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servants,

R.W. BARNWELL,
J.H. ADAMS,
JAMES L. ORR,

Commissioners.

[Inclosures.]

December 20, 1860 - South Carolina Declaration of Secession

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THE STATE OF SOUTH CAROLINA:

At a Convention of the People of the State of South Carolina, begun and holden at Columbia on the seventeenth day of December, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty, and thence continued by adjournment to Charleston, and there, by divers adjournments, to the twentieth of December in the same year:

AN ORDINANCE to dissolve the union between the State of South Carolina and other States united with her under the compact entitled "The Constitution of the United States of America":

We, the People of the State of South Carolina in convention assembled, to declare and ordain, and it is hereby declared and ordained, that the ordinance adopted by us in convention on the twenty-third day of May, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty-eight, whereby the Constitution of the United States of America was ratified and also all acts and parts of acts of the general assembly of this State ratifying amendments of the said Constitution, are hereby repealed; and that the union now subsisting between South Carolina and other States, under the name of the "United States of America," is hereby dissolved.

Done at Charleston the twentieth day of December in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty.

D.F. JAMISON,
Delegate from Barnwell, and
President of the Convention, and others.

Attest:

BENJAMIN F. ARTHUR,
Clerk of the Convention.

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December 20, 1860 - Memorandum to the State of South Carolina

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OFFICE OF SECRETARY OF STATE,
Charleston, S.C., December 22, 1860.

I do hereby certify that the foregoing ordinance is a true and correct copy taken from the original on file in this office.

Witness my hand and the seal of the State.

[L.S.]

ISAAC H. MEANS,
Secretary of State.

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December 28, 1860 - Authorization of commissioners to treat with the United States Government

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The State of South Carolina, by the Convention of the People of the said State, to Robert W. Barnwell, James H. Adams, and James L. Orr:

Whereas the Convention of the People of the State of South Carolina, begun and holden at Columbia on the seventeenth day of December, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty, and thence continued by adjournment to Charleston, did, by resolution, order "That three Commissioners to be elected by ballot of the Convention, be directed forthwith to proceed to Washington, authorized and empowered to treat with the Government of the United States for the delivery of the forts, magazines, light-houses, and other real with their appurtenances, within the limits of South Carolina, and also for an apportionment of the public debt and for a division of all other property held by the Government of the United States as agent of the confederated States, of which South Carolina, was recently a member; and, generally, to negotiate as to all other measures and arrangements proper to be made and adopted in the existing relations of the parties, and for the continuance of peace and amity between this Commonwealth and the Government at Washington":

And whereas the said Convention did, by ballot, elect you to the said office of Commissaries to the Government at Washington:

Now, be it known that the said Convention, by these presents, doth commission you, Robert W. Barnwell, James H. Adams, and James L. Orr, as Commissaries to the Government at Washington, to have, to hold, and to exercise the said office, with all the powers, rights, and privileges conferred upon the same by the terms of the resolution herein cited.

Given under the seal of the State, at Charleston, the twenty-second day of December in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty.

[L.S.]

D.F. JAMISON,
President.

ISAAC H. MEANS,
Secretary of State.

Attest:

B.F. ARTHUR,
Clerk of the Convention.

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December 31, 1860 - Captain Horatio Wright to (?)

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Union Correspondence, etc.

DECEMBER 31, 1860

Read the within to Lieutenant-General Scott this morning.

H.G.W.

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December 28, 1860 - Commissioner Robert Barnwell et. al to President James Buchanan

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Union Correspondence, etc.

WASHINGTON, December 28, 1860.
The PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES:

SIR: We have the honor to transmit to you a copy of the full powers from the Convention of the People of South Carolina, under which we are "authorized and empowered to treat with the Government of the United States for the delivery of the forts, magazines, light houses, and other real estate with their appurtenances, within the limits of South Carolina; and also for an apportionment of the public debt and a division of all other property held by the Government of the United States as agent of the confederated States, of which South Carolina was recently a member; and, generally, to negotiate as to all other measures and arrangements proper to be made and adopted in the existing relations of the parties, and for the continuance of peace and amity between this Commonwealth and the Government at Washington."

In the execution of this trust it is our duty to furnish you, as we now do, with an official copy of the ordinance of secession, by which the State of South Carolina has resumed the powers she delegated to the Government of the United States, and has declared her perfect sovereignty and independence.

It would also have been our duty to have informed you that were ready to negotiate with you upon all such questions as are necessarily raised by the adoption of this ordinance, and that we were prepared to enter upon this negotiation with the earnest desire to avoid all unnecessary and hostile collision, and so to inaugurate our new relations as to secure mutual respect, general advantage, and a future of good will and harmony, beneficial to all the parties concerned. But the events of the last twenty-four hours render such an assurance impossible. We came here, the representatives of an authority which could at any time within the past sixty days have taken possession of the forts in Charleston Harbor, but which, upon pledges given in a manner that we cannot doubt, determined to trust to your honor rather than to its own power. Since our arrival an officer of the United States acting, as we are assured, not only without but against your orders, has dismantled one fort and occupied another, thus altering to a most important extent the condition of affairs under which we came.

Until those circumstances are explained in a manner which relieves us of all doubt as to the spirit in which these negotiations shall be conducted, we are forced to suspend all discussion as to any arrangements by which our mutual interests might be amicably adjusted.

And, in conclusion, we would urge upon you the immediate with drawl of the troops, from the harbor of Charleston. Under present circumstances they are a standing menace which renders negotiation impossible, and, as our recent experience shows, threatens speedily to bring to a bloody issue questions which ought to be settled with temperance and judgment.

We have the honor to be, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servants,

R.W. BARNWELL,
J.H. ADAMS,
JAMES L. ORR,

Commissioners.

[Inclosures.]

December 20, 1860 - South Carolina Declaration of Secession

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THE STATE OF SOUTH CAROLINA:

At a Convention of the People of the State of South Carolina, begun and holden at Columbia on the seventeenth day of December, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty, and thence continued by adjournment to Charleston, and there, by divers adjournments, to the twentieth of December in the same year:

AN ORDINANCE to dissolve the union between the State of South Carolina and other States united with her under the compact entitled "The Constitution of the United States of America":

We, the People of the State of South Carolina in convention assembled, to declare and ordain, and it is hereby declared and ordained, that the ordinance adopted by us in convention on the twenty-third day of May, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty-eight, whereby the Constitution of the United States of America was ratified and also all acts and parts of acts of the general assembly of this State ratifying amendments of the said Constitution, are hereby repealed; and that the union now subsisting between South Carolina and other States, under the name of the "United States of America," is hereby dissolved.

Done at Charleston the twentieth day of December in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty.

D.F. JAMISON,
Delegate from Barnwell, and
President of the Convention, and others.

Attest:

BENJAMIN F. ARTHUR,
Clerk of the Convention.

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December 20, 1860 - Memorandum to the State of South Carolina

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OFFICE OF SECRETARY OF STATE,
Charleston, S.C., December 22, 1860.

I do hereby certify that the foregoing ordinance is a true and correct copy taken from the original on file in this office.

Witness my hand and the seal of the State.

[L.S.]

ISAAC H. MEANS,
Secretary of State.

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December 28, 1860 - Authorization of commissioners to treat with the United States Government

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The State of South Carolina, by the Convention of the People of the said State, to Robert W. Barnwell, James H. Adams, and James L. Orr:

Whereas the Convention of the People of the State of South Carolina, begun and holden at Columbia on the seventeenth day of December, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty, and thence continued by adjournment to Charleston, did, by resolution, order "That three Commissioners to be elected by ballot of the Convention, be directed forthwith to proceed to Washington, authorized and empowered to treat with the Government of the United States for the delivery of the forts, magazines, light-houses, and other real with their appurtenances, within the limits of South Carolina, and also for an apportionment of the public debt and for a division of all other property held by the Government of the United States as agent of the confederated States, of which South Carolina, was recently a member; and, generally, to negotiate as to all other measures and arrangements proper to be made and adopted in the existing relations of the parties, and for the continuance of peace and amity between this Commonwealth and the Government at Washington":

And whereas the said Convention did, by ballot, elect you to the said office of Commissaries to the Government at Washington:

Now, be it known that the said Convention, by these presents, doth commission you, Robert W. Barnwell, James H. Adams, and James L. Orr, as Commissaries to the Government at Washington, to have, to hold, and to exercise the said office, with all the powers, rights, and privileges conferred upon the same by the terms of the resolution herein cited.

Given under the seal of the State, at Charleston, the twenty-second day of December in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty.

[L.S.]

D.F. JAMISON,
President.

ISAAC H. MEANS,
Secretary of State.

Attest:

B.F. ARTHUR,
Clerk of the Convention.

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December 20, 1860 - South Carolina Declaration of Secession

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Union Correspondence, etc.

THE STATE OF SOUTH CAROLINA:

At a Convention of the People of the State of South Carolina, begun and holden at Columbia on the seventeenth day of December, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty, and thence continued by adjournment to Charleston, and there, by divers adjournments, to the twentieth of December in the same year:

AN ORDINANCE to dissolve the union between the State of South Carolina and other States united with her under the compact entitled "The Constitution of the United States of America":

We, the People of the State of South Carolina in convention assembled, to declare and ordain, and it is hereby declared and ordained, that the ordinance adopted by us in convention on the twenty-third day of May, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty-eight, whereby the Constitution of the United States of America was ratified and also all acts and parts of acts of the general assembly of this State ratifying amendments of the said Constitution, are hereby repealed; and that the union now subsisting between South Carolina and other States, under the name of the "United States of America," is hereby dissolved.

Done at Charleston the twentieth day of December in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty.

D.F. JAMISON,
Delegate from Barnwell, and
President of the Convention, and others.

Attest:

BENJAMIN F. ARTHUR,
Clerk of the Convention.

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December 20, 1860 - Memorandum to the State of South Carolina

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OFFICE OF SECRETARY OF STATE,
Charleston, S.C., December 22, 1860.

I do hereby certify that the foregoing ordinance is a true and correct copy taken from the original on file in this office.

Witness my hand and the seal of the State.

[L.S.]

ISAAC H. MEANS,
Secretary of State.

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December 28, 1860 - Authorization of commissioners to treat with the United States Government

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Union Correspondence, etc.

The State of South Carolina, by the Convention of the People of the said State, to Robert W. Barnwell, James H. Adams, and James L. Orr:

Whereas the Convention of the People of the State of South Carolina, begun and holden at Columbia on the seventeenth day of December, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty, and thence continued by adjournment to Charleston, did, by resolution, order "That three Commissioners to be elected by ballot of the Convention, be directed forthwith to proceed to Washington, authorized and empowered to treat with the Government of the United States for the delivery of the forts, magazines, light-houses, and other real with their appurtenances, within the limits of South Carolina, and also for an apportionment of the public debt and for a division of all other property held by the Government of the United States as agent of the confederated States, of which South Carolina, was recently a member; and, generally, to negotiate as to all other measures and arrangements proper to be made and adopted in the existing relations of the parties, and for the continuance of peace and amity between this Commonwealth and the Government at Washington":

And whereas the said Convention did, by ballot, elect you to the said office of Commissaries to the Government at Washington:

Now, be it known that the said Convention, by these presents, doth commission you, Robert W. Barnwell, James H. Adams, and James L. Orr, as Commissaries to the Government at Washington, to have, to hold, and to exercise the said office, with all the powers, rights, and privileges conferred upon the same by the terms of the resolution herein cited.

Given under the seal of the State, at Charleston, the twenty-second day of December in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty.

[L.S.]

D.F. JAMISON,
President.

ISAAC H. MEANS,
Secretary of State.

Attest:

B.F. ARTHUR,
Clerk of the Convention.

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December 28, 1860 - Lieutenant Colonel George Lay to President James Buchanan

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Union Correspondence, etc.

[Memorandum.]

The PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES.
WASHINGTON, D.C., December 28, 1860.

The following message was delivered by Lieutenant-Colonel Lay, aide-de-camp, from the General-in-Chief to the President of the United States, in person about 3 1/2 p.m., December 27:

Since the formal order, unaccompanied by special instructions, assigning Major Anderson to the command of Fort Moultrie, no order, intimation, suggestion or communication for his government and guidance has gone to that officer, or any of his subordinates, from the Headquarters of the Army; nor have any reports or communications been addressed to the General-in-Chief from Fort Moultrie later than a letter written by Major Anderson, almost immediately after his arrival in Charleston Harbor, reporting the then state of the work.

G.W. LAY,
Lieutenant-Colonel, A.D.C.

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December 28, 1860 - Memorandum to the Secretary of War

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[Memorandum.]

HEADQUARTERS OF THE ARMY,
Washington, December 28, 1860.

Lieutenant-General Scott, who has had a bad night, and can scarcely hold up his head this morning, begs to express the hope to the Secretary of War-

1. The orders may not be given for the evacuation of Fort Sumter:

2. That one hundred and fifty recruits may instantly be sent from Governor's Island to re-enforce that garrison, with ample supplies of ammunition, subsistence, including fresh vegetables, as potatoes, onions, turnips; and

3. That one or two armed vessels be sent to support the said fort.

Lieutenant-General Scott avails himself of this opportunity also to express the hope that recommendations heretofore made by him to the Secretary of War respecting Forts Jackson, Saint Philip, Morgan and Pulaski and particularly in respect to Forts Pickens and McRee and the Pensacola navy-yard in connection with the last two named works, may be reconsidered by the Secretary.

Lieutenant-General Scott will further ask the attention of the Secretary to Forts Jefferson and Taylor, which are wholly national, being of far greater value even to the most distant points of the Atlantic coast and to the people on the upper waters on the Missouri, Mississippi, and Ohio Rivers than to the State of Florida. There is only a feeble company at Key West for the defense of Fort Taylor, and not a soldier in Fort Jefferson to resist a handful of filibusters or a rowboat of pirates; and the Gulf, soon after the beginning of secession or revolutionary troubles in the adjacent States will swarm with such nuisances.

Respectfully submitted to the Secretary of War.

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December 28, 1860 - Major Robert Anderson to Adj. Gen. Samuel Cooper

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Union Correspondence, etc.

No. 13.]
FORT SUMTER, S.C., December 28, 1860.
(Received A.G.O., January 1, 1861.)

Colonel S. COOPER, Adjutant-General:

COLONEL: I have the honor to send herewith a copy of a memorandum received to-day from the governor of South Carolina, in reply to a message from me, which shows that for the present we are treated as enemies. I sent my post adjutant this morning with a message to the commanding officer of Fort Moultrie asking by what authority he held possession of that work, and desiring to know whether he would make any opposition to my sending for some property, public and private, left there. He replied to my first question that he held that post by authority of the sovereign State of South Carolina, and in obedience to the orders of the governor. To the second, that his orders were not to permit public property of any kind to be removed on any pretext whatever; that he was directed to take an inventory of the same, and to send it to the governor; that he would with pleasure assist in recovering and restoring all private property that was left. This decision about the public property shows that South Carolina is acting in this matter also toward us as if we were her enemy. The amount of public property thus left is not great, as I merely retained enough to prevent my movement from being suspected Lieutenant Hall to say that at a general meeting of the officers, the military move I made was unanimously pronounced to have been one of consummate wisdom; that it was the best one that could have been made, and that if I had not effected it things would have been very different. Speaking of his own position, he remarked that the guns of Fort Sumter looked into his guns, and said that he ought not to have been ordered to fire upon me, because if I returned his fire he would be compelled to retire to the sand hills. There were yesterday two regiments to guard the island. The remark about his orders looks like an intention to attack me here. I must confess that I feel highly complimented by the expression of such an opinion (from those most deeply affected by it) of the change of position I felt bound to take to save my command and to prevent the shedding of blood. In a few days I hope, God willing, that I shall be so strong here that they will hardly be foolish enough to attack me. I must confess that we have yet something to do before, with my small force, I shall feel quite independent, as this work is not impregnable, as I have heard it spoken of.

Trusting that something may occur which will lead to a peaceful solution of the questions between the General Government and South Carolina.

I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

ROBERT ANDERSON,
Major, First Artillery, Commanding.

P.S. - I do not feel authorized to reply to the memorandum of the governor, but shall regret very deeply his persistence in the course he has taken. He knows not how entirely the city of Charleston is in my power. I can cut his communication off from the sea, and thereby prevent the reception of supplies, and close the harbor, even at night, by destroying the light-houses. These things, of course, I would never do, unless compelled to do so in self-defense.

[Inclosure. - Copy of memorandum from Governor Pickens.]

December 28, 1860 - Memorandum from Governor Pickens

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Union Correspondence, etc.

HEADQUARTERS, December 28, 1860.

In reply to Major Anderson's request, made this morning verbally through First Lieutenant Snyder, from Fort Sumter, I hereby order and direct that free permission shall be given to him to send the ladies and camp women from Fort Sumter, with their private effects, to any portion of Sullivan's Island, and that entire protection shall be extended to them. It is also agreed that the mails may be sent over to the officers at Fort Sumter by their boats, and that all the ladies of Captain Foster's family shall be allowed to pass, with their effects and the effects of any kind belonging to Captain Foster, from the Mills House to Fort Sumter, and the kindest regard shall be paid to them. Of course, Lieutenant Meade's private effects can be taken possession of; but for the present there shall be no communication of any other kind allowed from the city to the fort, or any transportation of arms or ammunition, or any supplies, to the fort; and this is done with a view to prevent irregular collisions, and to spare the unnecessary effusion of blood.

F.W. PICKENS.

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December 28, 1860 - Memorandum from Governor Pickens

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Union Correspondence, etc.

HEADQUARTERS, December 28, 1860.

In reply to Major Anderson's request, made this morning verbally through First Lieutenant Snyder, from Fort Sumter, I hereby order and direct that free permission shall be given to him to send the ladies and camp women from Fort Sumter, with their private effects, to any portion of Sullivan's Island, and that entire protection shall be extended to them. It is also agreed that the mails may be sent over to the officers at Fort Sumter by their boats, and that all the ladies of Captain Foster's family shall be allowed to pass, with their effects and the effects of any kind belonging to Captain Foster, from the Mills House to Fort Sumter, and the kindest regard shall be paid to them. Of course, Lieutenant Meade's private effects can be taken possession of; but for the present there shall be no communication of any other kind allowed from the city to the fort, or any transportation of arms or ammunition, or any supplies, to the fort; and this is done with a view to prevent irregular collisions, and to spare the unnecessary effusion of blood.

F.W. PICKENS.

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December 29, 1860 - G.W. Lay to Larz Anderson

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Union Correspondence, etc.

WASHINGTON, December 29, 1860.

LARZ ANDERSON, ESQ., Cincinnati:

SIR: General Scott has been hoping for two or three days to find himself well enough to answer your letter, but is too much prostrated by diarrhea. He has done everything in his power to support your brother in his command, repeating, with what effect remains to be seen, within the last twenty-four hours, an urgent recommendation, long since made, to the President to re-enforce the major.

The War Department has kept secret from the General the instructions sent to the major, but the General, in common with the whole Army, has admired and vindicated as a defensive measure the masterly transfer of the garrison from Fort Moultrie to the position of Fort Sumter.

G.W. LAY.

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December 30, 1860 - Lieutenant General Winfield Scott to President James Buchanan

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Union Correspondence, etc.

WASHINGTON, December 30, 1860.

The PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES:

Lieutenant-General Scott begs the President of the United States to pardon the irregularity of this communication.

It is Sunday; the weather is bad, and General Scott is not well enough to go to church. But matters of the highest national importance seem to forbid a moment's delay, and if misled by zeal, he hopes for the President's forgiveness.

Will the President permit General Scott, without reference to the War Department and otherwise, as secretly as possible, to send two hundred and fifty recruits from New York Harbor to re-enforce Fort Sumter, together with some extra muskets or rifles, ammunition, and subsistence stores?

It is hoped that a sloop of war and cutter may be ordered for the same purpose as early as to-morrow.

General Scott will wait upon the President at any moment he may be called for.

The President's most obedient servant,

WINFIELD SCOTT.

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December 30, 1860 - Major Robert Anderson to Adjutant General Samuel Cooper

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Union Correspondence, etc.

No. 14.]
FORT SUMTER, S.C., December 30, 1860.
(Received A.G.O., January 2, 1861.)

Colonel S. COOPER, Adjutant-General:

COLONEL: I have the honor to report that the South Carolinians have established a post at Fort Johnson. It is said that one company and a half was sent to that place yesterday. I saw that there was a small party yesterday on Morris Island. They probably intend establishing batteries at Fort Johnson and on the island, and throwing shot and shells at us from those places and Fort Moultrie, where they are very busily engaged repairing their battery. The governor was called upon by a friend of mine in reference to his decision, by which all communication between us and the city (except the sending for our mails) was cut off, and he refuses, to modify or recall his order. We are pushing forward our work here very vigorously, and if we have a week longer, shall by the blessing of God, be fully prepared for any attack they may make. I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

ROBERT ANDERSON
Major, First Artillery, Commanding.

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December 30, 1860 - Captain John Foster to Colonel René De Russy

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Union Correspondence, etc.

FORT SUMTER, S.C., December 30, 1860.

Colonel R.E. DE RUSSY,
Commanding Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army, Washington, D.C.:

COLONEL: I am exerting myself to the utmost to make this work impregnable, and am most ably and energetically supported by Lieutenants Snyder and Meade. The whole labor of preparation falls upon us, as the command is too small to be worn down by labor.

The quartermaster has no funds, I therefore consider it my duty to provide everything. I cannot commit to paper the preparations that are completed and in progress to resist an attack here. Be assured, however, that no efforts are spared to make them as complete as they can be made under the circumstances. I beg that any funds that can be obtained for me may be deposited in New York.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J.G. FOSTER,
Captain, Engineers.

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December 31, 1860 - President James Buchanan to Hons. Robert Barnwell et al

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Union Correspondence, etc.

WASHINGTON CITY, December 31, 1860.
Hons. ROBERT W. BARNWELL, JAMES H. ADAMS, JAMES L. ORR:

GENTLEMEN; I have had the honor to receive your communication of the 28th instant, together with a copy of your "full powers from the Convention of the People of South Carolina" authorizing you to treat with the Government of the United States on various important subjects therein mentioned, and also copy of the ordinance, bearing date on the 20th instant, declaring that "the union now subsisting between South Carolina and other States under the name of 'the United States of America' is thereby dissolved."

In answer to this communication I have to say that my position as President of the United States was clearly defined in the message to Congress on the 3rd instant. In that I stated that "apart from the execution of the laws, so far as this may be practicable, the Executive has no authority to decide what shall be the relations between the Federal Government and South Carolina. He has been invested with no such discretion. He possesses no power to change the relations heretofore existing between them, much less to acknowledge the independence of that State. This would be to invest a mere executive officer with the power of recognizing the dissolution of the confederacy among our thirty-three sovereign States. It bears no resemblance to the recognition of a foreign de facto government, involving no such responsibility. Any attempt to do this would, on his part, be naked act of usurpation. It is therefore my duty to submit to Congress the whole question in all its bearings."

Such is still my opinion, and I could therefore meet you only as private gentlemen of the highest character, and I was quite willing to communicate to Congress any proposition you might have to make to that body upon the subject. Of this you were well aware.

It was my earnest desire that such a disposition might be made of the whole subject by Congress, who alone possess the power, as to prevent the inauguration of a civil war between the parties in regard to the possession of the Federal forts in the harbor of Charleston; and I therefore deeply regret that, in your opinion, "the events of the last twenty-four hours render this impossible." In conclusion you urge upon me "the immediate withdrawal of the troops from the harbor of Charleston," stating that, "under present circumstances, they are a standing menace which renders negotiation impossible, and, as our recent experience shows, threatens speedily to bring to a bloody issue questions which ought to be settled with temperance and judgment."

The reason for this change in your position is that, since your arrival in Washington, "an officer of the United States, acting, as we (you) are assured not only without but against your (my) orders, has dismantled one fort and occupied another, thus altering to a most important extent the condition of affairs under which we (you) came."

You also allege that you came here "the representatives of an authority which could at any time within the past sixty days have taken possession of the forts in Charleston Harbor, but which, upon pledges given in a manner that we (you) cannot doubt, determined to trust to your (my) honor rather than to its own power."

This brings me to a consideration of the nature of those alleged pledges, and in what manner they have been observed. In my message of the 3rd of December instant I stated, in regard to the property of the United States in South Carolina, that it "has been purchased for a fair equivalent, 'by the consent of the legislature of the State, for the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals', &c., and over these the authority 'to exercise exclusive legislation' has been expressly granted by the Constitution to Congress. It is not believed that any attempt will be made to expel the United States from this property by force; but if in this I should prove to be mistaken, the officer in command of the forts has received orders to act strictly on the defensive. In such a contingency the responsibility for consequences would rightfully rest upon the heads of the assailants."

This being the condition of the parties on Saturday, December 8, four of the Representatives from South Carolina called upon me and requested an interview. We had an earnest conversation on the subject of these forts and the best means of preventing a collision between the parties, of the purpose of sparing the effusion of blood. I suggested, for prudential reasons, that it would be best to put in writing what they said to me verbally. They did so accordingly, and on Monday morning, the 10th instant, three of them presented to me a paper signed by all the Representatives of South Carolina, with a single exception, of which the following is a copy:



WASHINGTON, December 9, 1860.

His Excellency JAMES BUCHANAN,
President of the United States:

In compliance with our statement to you yesterday, we now express too you our strong convictions that neither the constituted authorities, nor any body of the people of the State of South Carolina, will either attack or molest the United States forts in the harbor of Charleston previously to the action of the convention, and we hope and believe not until an offer has been made, through an accredited representative, to negotiate for an amicable arrangement of all matters between the State and Federal Government, provided that no re-enforcements shall be sent into those forts, and their relative military status shall remain as at present.

JOHN McQUEEN.
WM. PORCHER MILES.
M.L. BONHAM.
W.W. BOYCE.
LAWRENCE M. KEITT.



And here I must, in justice to myself, remark that at the time the paper was presented to me I objected to the word "provided," as it might be construed into an agreement on my part which I never would make. They said nothing was further from their intention; they did not so understand it, and I should not so consider it. It is evident they could enter into no reciprocal agreement with me on the subject. They did not profess to have authority to do this, and were acting in their individual character. I considered it as nothing more in effect than the promise of highly honorable gentlemen to exert their influence for the purpose expressed. The event has proven that they have faithfully kept this promise although I have never since received a line from any one of them, or from the convention, on the subject. It is well known that it was my determination, and this I freely expressed, not to re-enforce the forts in the harbor, and thus produce a collision, until they had been actually attacked, or until I had certain evidence that they were about to be attacked. This paper I received most cordially, and considered it as a happy omen that peace might be still preserved, and that time might thus be gained for reflection. This is the whole foundation for the alleged pledge.

But I acted in the same manner as I would have done had I enter into a positive and formal agreement with parties capable of contracting, although such an agreement would have been on my part, from the nature of my official duties, impossible. The world knows that I have never sent any re-enforcements to the forts in Charleston Harbor and I have certainly never authorized any change to be made "in their relative military status."

Bearing upon this subject, I refer you to an order issued by the Secretary of War, on the 11th instant to Major Anderson, but not brought to my notice the 21st instant. It is as follows:



Memorandum of verbal instructions to Major Anderson, First Artillery, commanding at Fort Moultrie, South Carolina.

You are aware of the great anxiety of the Secretary of War that a collision of the troops with the people of this State shall be avoided, and of his studied determination to pursue a course with reference to the military force and forts in this harbor which shall guard against such a collision. He has therefore carefully abstained from increasing the force at this point, or taking any measures which might add to the present excited state of the public mind, or which would throw any doubt on the confidence he feels that South Carolina will not attempt by violence to obtain possession of the public works or interfere with their occupancy. But as the counsel and acts of rash and impulsive persons may possibly disappoint these expectations of the Government, he deems it proper that you shall be prepared with instructions to meet so unhappy a contingency. He has therefore directed me verbally to give you such instructions.

You are carefully to avoid every act which would needlessly tend to provoke aggression; and for that reason you are not, without evident and imminent necessity, to take up any position which could be construed into the assumption of a hostile attitude. But you are to hold possession of the forts in this harbor, and if attacked you are to defend yourself to the last extremity. The smallness of your force will not permit you, perhaps, to occupy more than obey of the three forts, but an attack on or attempt to take possession of either one of them will be regarded as an act of hostility, and you may then put your command into either of them which you may deem most proper to increase its power of resistance. You are also authorized to take similar defensive steps whenever you have tangible evidence of a design to proceed to a hostile act.

D.C. BUELL,
Assistant Adjutant-General.




FORT MOULTRIE, S.C., December 11, 1860.

This is in conformity to my instructions to Major Buell.

JOHN B. FLOYD,
Secretary of War.



These were the last instructions transmitted to Major Anderson before his removal to Fort Sumter, with a single exception, in regard to a particular which does not in any degree affect the present question. Under these circumstances it is clear that Major Anderson acted upon his own responsibility, and without authority, unless, indeed, he had "tangible evidence of a design to proceed to a hostile act" on the part of the authorities of South Carolina, which as not yet been alleged. Still, he is a brave and honorable officer, and justice requires that he should not be condemned without a fair hearing.

Be this as it may, when I learned that Major Anderson had left Fort Moultrie, and proceeded to Fort Sumter, my first prompting were to command him to return to his former position, and there await the contingencies presented in his instructions. This could only have been done with any degree of safety to the command by the concurrence of the South Carolina authorities. But before any steps could possibly have been taken in this direction, we received information, dated on the 28th instant that the "palmetto flag floated out to the breeze at Castle Pinckney and a large military force went over last night (the 27th) to Fort Moultrie." Thus the authorities of South Carolina, without waiting or asking for any explanation, and doubtless believing, as you have expressed it that, the officer had acted not only without but against my orders, on the very next day after the night when the movement was made, seized by a military force two of the three Federal forts in the harbor of Charleston, and have covered them under their own flag instead of that of the United States. At this gloomy period of our history starting events succeed each other rapidly. On the very day, the 27th instant, that possession of these two forts was taken the palmetto flag was raised over the Federal custom-house and post-office in Charleston; and on the same day every officer of the customs, collector, naval officer, surveyor, and appraisers, resigned their offices. And this, although it was well known from the language of my message that, as an executive officer, I felt myself bound to collect the revenue at the port of Charleston under the existing laws.

In the harbor of Charleston we now find three forts confronting each other, over all of which the Federal flag floated only four days ago; but now over two of them this flag has been supplanted, and the palmetto flag has been substituted in its stead. It is under all these circumstances that I am urged immediately to withdraw the troops from the harbor of Charleston, and am informed that without this, negotiation is impossible. This I cannot do; this I will not do. Such an idea was never thought of by me in any possible contingency. No allusion had ever been made to it in any communication between myself and any human being. But the inference is that I am bound to withdraw the troops from the only fort remaining in the possession of the United States in the harbor of Charleston, because the officer there in command of all the forts thought proper, without instructions, to change his position from one of them to another. I cannot admit the justice of any such inference. And at this point of writing I have received information by telegraph from Captain Humphreys in command of the arsenal at Charleston, that it "has to-day (Sunday, the 30th) been taken by force of arms." Comment is needless. It is estimated that the property of the United States in this arsenal was worth half a million of dollars.

After this information I have only to add that, whilst it is my duty to defend Fort Sumter as a portion of public property of the United States against hostile attacks, from whatever quarter they may come, by such means as I may possess for this purpose, I do not perceive how such a defense can be construed into a menace against the city of Charleston.[1]

With great personal regard, I remain, yours, very respectfully,

JAMES BUCHANAN.


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December 31, 1860 - Lieutenant General Winfield Scott to Colonel Justin Dimick

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HEADQUARTERS OF THE ARMY,
Washington, December 31, 1860.

Colonel DIMICK, or commanding officer, Fort Monroe:

SIR: Prepare and put on board of the sloop-of-war Brooklyn, as soon as the latter can receive them, four companies, making at least two hundred men, desired to re-enforce Fort Sumter. Embark with said companies twenty-five spare stands of arms, complete, and subsistence for the entire detachment for ninety days, or as near that amount as your supplies may furnish. Communicate at once with the commander of the war steamer, learn the earliest moment at which he can receive the troops on board, and do not fail to have them there by that time.

W. SCOTT.

Manage everything as secretly and confidentially as possible. Look to this.

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December 31, 1860 - Lieutenant General Winfield Scott to President James Buchanan

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HEADQUARTERS OF THE ARMY,
Washington, December 31, 1860.

To the PRESIDENT:

Lieutenant-General Scott again begs leave to trespass for a moment on the indulgence of the President of the United States particularly as he learns by rumor that there is no head to the War Department.[1]

Such are the necessities of the service that it is hoped the vacancy in question may be speedily filled, and, incidentally, that the new Secretary, if ad interim, may not be a junior officer of the Army, as it would wound the pride of any senior to serve under such Secretary.

Lieutenant-General Scott deems it to be his duty to lay, the accompanying letter before the President.+ The writer is a distinguished graduate of the Military Academy, and an eminent lawyer of the New York bar. Major-General Sandford, mentioned by him, is an officer and citizen of great merit and discretion, commanding the City Division of Volunteers.

General Scott does not recommend the acceptance of Mr. Hamilton's proposition,[2] as we have disposable regulars enough for that single purpose; by that we already require many and large detachments for the protection of our coast defenses farther south is becoming daily more and more evident.

In reference to General Scott's note of yesterday to the President, he respectfully adds; Of course, the War Department and General Scott cannot communicate anything to Major Anderson, or receive by mail or telegraphic wires anything from him (who must be regarded as in a state of siege), except by permission of the authorities in Charleston; and it is just possible in his state of isolation a system of forged telegrams from this place may be played off so successfully as to betray him into some false movement.

Most respectfully submitted to the President of the United States.

WINFIELD SCOTT.

P.S.- As a sequence to the foregoing, it is respectfully suggested that there seems to be no other way of freely communicating with Major Anderson than by water, say by a revenue cutter running regularly between Wilmington, N.C., and Fort Sumter.

W.S.

  1. No record of Mr. Floyd's letter of resignation can be found in the War Department.
  2. Not of record.


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December 31, 1860 - Major Robert Anderson to Adjutant General Samuel Cooper

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Union Correspondence, etc.

No. 15.] FORT SUMTER, S.C., December 31, 1860.
(Received, A.G.O., January 5, 1861.)

Colonel S. COOPER, Adjutant-General:

COLONEL: I have the honor to report that the South Carolinians show great activity in the harbor to-day. Several steamers have been running to and for, and this afternoon about 80 soldiers, with wheel-barrows, barrels, &c., and some draught horses, were landed on Morris Island. They are evidently constructing a battery or batteries there. The lights in the harbor were put out last night, and ours is the only light-house of this harbor which exhibits a light to-night. I am not a loss what this means, unless it be that some armed vessel is expected here. The more I reflect upon the matter the stronger are my convictions that I was right in coming here. Whilst we were at Fort Moultrie our safety depended on their forbearance. A false telegram might, any night, have been seized upon as an excuse for taking this place, and then we would have ben in their power. And even if there had been an understanding between the two Governments that I was not to be interfered with until the termination of the mission to Washington, the fact of the governor's having ordered armed steamers to keep watch over me would have absolved our Government from the obligation to remain quiescent. It is certain, too, that the moment a telegram was received announcing the failure of the mission, an attack would have been made and my command sacrificed, for there can be no surrender with these men,if attacked, without a serious fight. Thank God, we are now where the Government may send us additional troops at its leisure. To be sure, the uncivil and uncourteous action of the governor in preventing us from purchasing anything in the city will annoy and inconvenience us somewhat; still, we are safe. I find that in consequence, of a failure (accidental) to comply with my instructions, there is only a small supply of soap and candles, and also of coal. Still, we can cheerfully put up with the inconvenience of doing without them, for the satisfaction we feel in the knowledge that we can command this harbor as long as our Government wishes to keep it.

I am, colonel, respectfully, your obedient servant,

ROBERT ANDERSON,
Major, First Artillery, Commanding.

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January 1, 1861 - Reply of the Commissioners to the President

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Union Correspondence, etc.

Reply of Commissioners to the President.

WASHINGTON, D.C., January 1, 1861.

To his Excellency the PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES:

SIR: We have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 30th December in reply to a note addressed by us to you on the 28th of the same month, as Commissioners from South Carolina.

In reference to the declaration with which your reply commences, that "your position as President of the United States was clearly defined in the message to Congress of the 3rd instant," that you possess "no power to change the relations heretofore existing," between South Carolina and the United States, "much less to acknowledge the independence of that State," and that, consequently, you could meet us only as private gentlemen of the highest character, with an entire willingness to communicate to Congress any proposition we might have to make, we deem it only necessary to say that the State of South Carolina having, in the exercise of that great right of self-government which underlies all our political organizations, declared herself sovereign and independent, we, which you might recognize us. Satisfied that the State had simply exercised here unquestionable right, we were prepared, in order to reach substantial good, to waive the formal consideration which your constitutional scruples might have prevented you from extending. We came here, therefore, expecting to be received as you did receive us, and perfectly content with that entire willingness of the which you assured us, to submit any proposition to Congress which we might have to make upon the subject of the independence of the State.

That willingness was ample recognition of the condition of public affairs which rendered our presence necessary. In this position, however, it is our duty, both to the State which we represent and to ourselves, to correct several important misconceptions of our letter into which you have fallen.

You say:"It was my earnest desire that such a disposition might be made of the whole subject by Congress, who alone possess the power, as to prevent the inauguration of a civil war between the parties in regard to the possession of the Federal forts in the harbor of Charleston, and I therefore deeply regret that, in your opinion, 'the events of the last twenty-four hours render this impossible.'" We expressed no such opinion and the language which you quote as ours is altered in its sense by the omission of a most important part of the sentence. What we did say was, "But the events of the last twenty-four hours render such an assurance impossible." Place that "assurance" as contained in our letter in the sentence, and we are prepared to repeat it.

Again, professing to quote our language, you say:"Thus the authorities of South Carolina, without waiting or asking for any explanation, and doubtless believing, as you have expressed it, that the officer had acted not only without but against my orders," &c. We expressed no such opinion in reference to the belief of the people of South Carolina. The language which you have quoted was applied solely and entirely to our assurance, obtained here, and based, as you well know, upon your own declaration-a declaration which, at that time, it was impossible for the authorities of South Carolina to have known. But without following this letter into all its details, we propose only to meet the chief points of the argument.

Some weeks ago, the State of South Carolina declared her intention in the existing condition of public affairs to secede from the United States. She called a convention of her people to put her declaration in force. The convention met and passed the ordinance of secession. All this you anticipated, and your course of action was thoroughly considered. In your annual message you declared you had no right, and would not attempt, to coerce a seceding State, but that you were bound by your constitutional oath, and would defend the property of the United States within the borders of South Carolina if an attempt was made to take it by force. Seeing very early that this question of property was a difficult and delicate one, you manifested a desire to settle it without collision. You did not re-enforce the garrisons in the harbor of Charleston. You removed a distinguished and veteran officer from the command of Fort Moultrie because he attempted to increase his supply of ammunition. You refused to send additional troops to the some garrison when applied for by the officer appointed to succeed him. You accepted the resignation of the oldest and most efficient member of your Cabinet rather than allow these garrisons to be strengthened. You compelled an officer stationed at Fort Sumter to return immediately to the arsenal forty muskets which he had taken to arm his men. You expressed not to one, but to many, of the most distinguished of our public characters, whose testimony will be placed upon the record whenever it is necessary, your anxiety for a peaceful termination of this controversy, and your willingness not to disturb the military status of the forts if commissioners should be sent to the Government, whose communications you promised to submit to Congress. You received acted on assurances from the highest official authorities of South Carolina that no attempt would be made to disturb you possession of the forts and property of the United States if you would not disturb their existing condition until commissioners had been sent and the attempt to negotiate had failed. You took from the members of the House of Representatives a written memorandum that no such attempt should be made,"provided that no re-enforcements shall be sent into those forts, and their relative military status remain as at present." And, although you attach no force to the acceptance of such a paper, although you "considered it as nothing more in effect than the promise of highly honorable gentlemen," as an obligation on one side without corresponding obligation on the other, it must be remembered (if we are rightly informed) that you were pledged, if you ever did send re-enforcements, to return it to those from whom you had received it before you executed your resolution. You sent orders to you officers commanding them strictly to follow a line of conduct in conformity with such an understanding.

Besides all this, you had received formal and official notice from the governor of South Carolina that we had been appointed commissioners, and were on our way to Washington. You knew the implied condition under which we came; our arrival was notified to you, and an hour appointed for an interview. We arrived in Washington on Wednesday at three o'clock, and you appointed an interview with us at once the next day. Early on that day (Thursday) the news was received here of the movement of Major Anderson. That news was communicated to you immediately, and you postponed our meeting until half past two o'clock on Friday in order that you might consult your Cabinet. On Friday we saw you, and we called upon you then to redeem your pledge. You could not deny it.

With the facts we have stated, and in the face of the crowning and conclusive fact that your Secretary of War had resigned his seat in the Cabinet upon the publicly-avowed ground that the action of Major Anderson had violated the pledged faith of the Government, and that unless the pledge was instantly redeemed he was dishonored, denial was impossible. You did not deny it; you do not deny it now; but you seek to escape from its obligation on two grounds; 1st. That we terminated all negotiation by demanding, as preliminary, the withdrawal of the United States troops from the harbor of Charleston; and 2nd. That the authorities of South Carolina, instead of asking explanation, and giving you the opportunity to vindicate yourself, took possession of other property of the United States. We will examine both.

In the first place, we deny positively that we have ever, in any way, made any such demand. Our letter is in your possession; it will stand by this on the record. In it we inform you of the objects of our mission. We say that it would have been our duty to have assured you of our readiness to commence negotiations with the most earnest and anxious desire to settle all questions between us amicably and to our mutual advantage, but that events had rendered that assurance impossible. We stated the events, and we said that until some satisfactory explanation of these events was given us, we could not proceed; and then, having made this request for explanation, we added:"And, in conclusion we would urge upon you he immediate withdrawal of the troops from the harbor of Charleston. Under present circumstances, they are a standing menace, which renders negotiation impossible," &c. "Under present circumstances"! What circumstances? Why, clearly, the occupation of Fort Sumter and the dismantling of Fort Moultrie by Major Anderson, in the face of your pledges, and without explanation or partial disavowal. And there is nothing in the letter which would or could have prevented you from declining to withdraw the troops, and offering the restoration of the status to which you are pledged, if such had been your desire. It would have been wiser and better, in our opinion, to have withdrawn the troops, and this opinion we urged upon you; but we demanded nothing but such an explanation of the events of the last twenty-four hours as would restore our confidence in the spirit with which the negotiation should be conducted.

In relation to this withdrawal of the troops from the harbor we are compelled, however, to notice one passage of your letter. Referring to it, you say: "This I cannot do; this I will not do. Such an idea was never thought of by me in any possible contingency. No allusion to it had ever been made in any communication between myself and any human being."

In reply to this statement we are compelled to say that you conversation with us left upon our minds the distinct impression that you did seriously contemplate the withdrawal of the troops from Charleston Harbor. And in support of this impression we would add that we have the positive assurance of gentlemen of the highest possible public reputation and the most unsullied integrity-men whose name and fame, secured by long service and patriotic achievement place their testimony beyond cavil-that such suggestions had been made to and urged upon you by them, and had formed the subject of more than one earnest discussion with you. And it was this knowledge that induced us to urge upon you a policy which ad to recommend it its own wisdom and the weight of such authority.

As to the second point, that the authorities of South Carolina, instead of asking explanations and giving you the opportunity to vindicate yourself, took possession of other property of the United States, we would observe-

1. That, even it this were so, it does not avail you for defense, for the opportunity for decision was afforded you before these facts occurred. We arrived in Washington on Wednesday; the news from Major Anderson reached here early on Thursday, and was immediately communicated to you. All that day men of the highest consideration-men who had striven successfully to lift your to great office, who had been your tried and true friends through the troubles of your administration- sought you and entreated you to act, to act at once. They told you that every hour complicated your position. They only asked you to give the assurance that, if the facts were so-that if the commander had acted without and against your orders, and in violation of your pledges-that you would restore the status you had pledged your honor to maintain.

You refused to decide. You Secretary of War-your immediate and proper adviser in this whole matter-waited anxiously for your decision, until he felt that delay was becoming dishonor. More than twelve hours passed, and two Cabinet meetings had adjourned before your knew what the authorities of South Carolina had done, and your prompt decision at any moment of that time would have avoided the subsequent complications.

But if you had known the acts of the authorities, of South Carolina, should that have prevented your keeping your faith? What was the condition of things? For the last sixty days you have had in Charleston Harbor not force enough to hold the forts against an equal enemy. Two of them were empty, one of those two the most important in the harbor; it could have been taken at any time. You ought to know better than any man that it would have been taken but for the efforts of those who put their trust in your honor. Believing that they were threatened by Fort Sumter especially, the people were with difficulty restrained from securing, without blood, the possession of this important fortress. After many and reiterated assurances given on your behalf, which we cannot believe unauthorized, they determined to forbear, and in good faith sent on their commissioners to negotiate with you. They meant you no harm; wished you no ill. They thought of you kindly, believed you true, and were willing, as far as was consistent with duty, to spare you unnecessary and hostile collision.

Scarcely had their commissioners left, than Major Anderson waged war. No other words will describe his action. It was not a peaceful change from one fort to another; it was a hostile act in the highest sense-one only justified in the presence of a superior enemy, and in imminent peril. He abandoned his position, spiked his guns, burned his gun carriages, made preparations for the destruction of his post, and withdrew, under cover of the night, to a safer position. This was war.

No man could have believed (without your assurance) that any officer could have taken such a step, "not only without orders, but this act, with all its attending circumstances was as much war as firing a volley; and war being thus begun, until those commencing it explained their action and disavowed their intention, there was no room for delay; and even at this moment, while we are writing, it is more than probable, from the tenor of your letter, that re-enforcements are hurrying on to the conflict so that when the first gun shall be fired there will have been on your part, one continuous consistent series of actions commencing in a demonstration essentially warlike, supported by regular re-enforcement and terminating in defeat or victory.

And all this without the slightest provocation; for, among the many things which you have said, there is one thing you cannot say-you have waited anxiously for news from the seat of war, in hopes that delay would furnish some excuse for this precipitation. But this "tangible evidence of a design to proceed to a hostile act on the part of the authorities of South Carolina" (which is the only justification of Major Anderson) you are forced to admit "has not yet been alleged." But you have decided. You have resolved to hold by force what you have obtained through our misplaced confidence, and by refusing to disavow the action of Major Anderson, have converted his violation of orders into a legitimate act of your executive authority. Be the issue what it may, of this we are assured, that if Fort Moultrie has been recorded in history as a memorial of Carolina gallantry, Fort Sumter, will live upon the succeeding page as an imperishable testimony of Carolina faith.

By your course you have probably rendered civil war inevitable. Be it so. If you choose to force this issue upon us, the State of South Carolina will accept it, and relying upon Him who is the God of Justice as well as the God of Hosts, will endeavor to perform the great duty which lies before her, hopefully, bravely, and thoroughly.

Our mission being one for negotiation and peace, and your note, leaving us without hope of a withdrawal of the troops from Fort Sumter, or of the restoration of the status quo existing at the time of our arrival, and intimating as we think, your determination to re-enforce the garrison in the harbor of Charleston, we respectfully inform you that we propose returning to Charleston on to-morrow afternoon.

We have the honor to be, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servants,

R.W. BARNWELL,
J.H. ADAMS,
JAMES L. ORR,
Commissioners.

[Indorsement.]

EXECUTIVE MANSION,

3 1/2 o'clock, Wednesday.

This paper just presented to the President, is of such a character that he declines to receive it.

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Unknown Date - Statement of Messrs. Miles and Keitt

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Union Correspondence, etc.

Statement of Messrs. Miles and Keitt of what transpired between the President and the South Carolina delegation.

In compliance with the request of the Convention, we beg leave to make the following statement:

On Saturday, the 8th of December several of the South Carolina delegation, including ourselves, waited upon the President. At this time there was a growing belief that re-enforcements were on the eve of being sent to the forts in Charleston Harbor.

It was known that the subject was frequently and earnestly discussed in the Cabinet. It was rumored that General Cass and Mr. Holt were urgent that re-enforcements should be sent. Upon our being announced the President, who was then in Cabinet council, came out to us in the anteroom. We at once entered into a conversation upon the topic which was so closely occupying his thoughts as well as ours. The President seemed much disturbed and moved. He told us that he had a painful interview with the wife of Major Anderson, who had come on from New York to see him. She had manifested great anxiety and distress at the situation of her husband, whom she seemed to consider in momentary danger of an attack from an excited and lawless mob. The President professed to feel a deep responsibility resting upon him to protect the lives of Major Anderson and his command. We told him that the news that re-enforcements were on their way to Charleston would be the surest means of provoking what Mrs. Anderson apprehended, and what he so much depredated. We said further that we did not believe that Major Anderson was in any danger of such an attack; that the general sentiment of the State was against any such proceeding; that prior to the action of the State Convention, then only ten days off, we felt satisfied that there would be no attempt to molest the forts in any way; that after the convention met, while we could not possibly undertake to say what that body would see fit to do, we yet hoped and believed that nothing would be done until we had first endeavored, by duly accredited commissioners, to negotiate for a peaceful settlement of all matters, including the delivery of the forts, between South Carolina and the Federal Government. At the same time we again reiterated our solemn belief that any change in the then existing condition of things in Charleston Harbor would, in the excited state of feeling at home, inevitably precipitate a collision.

The impression made upon us was that the President was wavering and had not decided what course he would pursue. He said he was glad to have had this conversation with us, but would prefer that we should give him a written memorandum of the substance of what we had said. This we did on Monday, the 10th. It was in these words:



His Excellency JAMES BUCHANAN,
President of the United States:

In compliance with our statement to you yesterday, we now express to you our strong convictions that neither the constituted authorities, nor any body of the people of the State of South Carolina, will either attack or molest the United States the United States forts in the harbor of Charleston previously to the action of the convention, and we hope and believe not until an offer has been made, through an accredited representative, to negotiate for an amicable arrangement of all matters between the State and Federal Government, provided that no re-enforcement shall be sent into those forts, and their relative military status shall remain as at present.

JOHN McQUEEN.
WM. PORCHER MILES.
M.L. BONHAM.
W.W. BOYCE.
LAWRENCE M. KEITT.

WASHINGTON, December 9, 1860.



The President did not like the word "provided" because it looked as if we were binding him while avowing that we had no authority to commit the convention. We told him that we did not so understand it. We were expressing our convictions and belief, predicated upon the maintenance of a certain condition of things, which maintenance was absolutely and entirely in his power. If he minted such condition, then we believed that collision would be avoided until the attempt at a peaceable negotiation had failed. If he did not, then we solemnly assured him that we believed that collision must inevitably and at once be precipitated. He seemed satisfied, and said it was not his intention to send re-enforcements or make any change. We explained to him what we meant by the words "relative military status," as applied to the forts; mentioned the difference between Major Anderson's occupying his then position at Fort Moultrie and throwing himself into Fort Sumter. We stated that the latter step would be equivalent to re-enforcing the garrison and would just as certainly as the sending of fresh troops lead to the result which we both desired to avoid. When we rose to go the President said in substance, "After all, this is a matter of honor among gentlemen. I do not know that any paper or writing is necessary. We understand each other."

One of the delegation, just before leaving the room, remarked: "Mr. President, you have determined to let things remain as they are, and not to send re-enforcements; but suppose that you were hereafter to change your policy for any reason, what then? That would put us, who are willing to use personal influence to prevent any attack upon the forts before commissioners are sent on to Washington, in rather an embracing position." "Then," said the President, "I would first return you, this paper." We do not pretend to give the exact words on either side, but we are sure we give the sense of both.

The above is a full and exact account of what passed between the President and the delegation. The President, in his letter to our commissioners, tries to give the impression that our "understanding" or "agreement" was not a "pledge." We confess we are not sufficiently versed in the wiles of diplomacy to feel the force of this "distinction without a difference." Nor can we understand how, in "a matter of honor among gentlemen," in which "no paper or writing is necessary," the very party who was willing to put it on that high footing can honorably descend to mere verbal criticism to purge himself of what all gentlemen and men of honor must consider a breach of faith. The very fact that we (the Representatives from South Carolina) were not authorized to commit or "pledge" the State, were not treating with the President as accredited ministers with full pours, but as gentlemen, assuming, to a certain extent, the delicate task of undertaking to foreshadow the course and policy of the State, should have made the President the more ready to strengthen our hands to bring about and carry out that course and policy which he professed to have as much at heart as we had. While we were not authorized to say that the Convention would not order the occupation of the forts immediately after secession and prior to the sending on of commissioners, the President as commander-in-chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, could positively say that so long as South Carolina abstained from attacking and seizing the forts, he would not send re-enforcements to them, or allow their relative military status to be changed.

We were acting in the capacity of gentlemen holding certain prominent positions, and anxious to exert such influence as we might possess to effect a peaceful solution of pending political difficulties, and prevent, if possible, the horrors of war. The President was acting in a double capacity-not only as a gentleman, whose influence in carrying out his share of the understanding or agreement was potential, but as the head of the Army, and therefore having the absolute control of the whole matter of re-enforcing or transferring the garrison at Charleston.

But we have dwelt long enough upon this point. Suffice it to say that considering the President as bound in honor, if not by treaty stipulations, not to make any change in the forts or to send re-enforcements to them unless they were attacked,we of the delegation who were elected to the Convention felt equally bound in honor to do everything on our part to prevent any premature collision. This Convention can bear us witness as to whether or not we endeavored honorably to carry out our share of the agreement.

The published debates at the very commencement of the session contain the evidence of our good faith. We trusted the President. We believed his wishes concurred with this policy and that both were directed to avoiding any inauguration of hostilities. We were confirmed in our confidence and reassured in our belief by a significant event which took place subsequent to our interview. He allowed his premier Cabinet officer, an old and tried friend, to resign rather than yield to his solicitations for the re-enforcement of the garrison at Charleston. We urged this as a convincing proof of his firmness and sincerity. But how have we been deceived! The news of Major Anderson's coup produced a sudden and unexpected change in the President's policy. While declaring that his withdrawal from Fort Moultrie to Fort Sumter was "without orders, and contrary to orders," he yet refused for twelve hours to take any action in the matter. For twelve hours, therefore, without any excuse, he refused to redeem his plighted word. No subsequent acts on the part of our State, no after reasons, can wipe away the stain which he suffered to rest upon his "honor as a gentleman," while this hours, big with portentous events, rolled slowly by. His Secretary of War, impatient of a delay, every moment of which he felt touched his own honor, resigned. He did so solely on the ground that the faith of the Government, solemnly pledged, was broken, if it failed promptly to undo what had been done contrary to its wishes, against its settled policy and in violation of its distinct agreement. The President accepted his resignation without comment. He did not attempt to disabuse the mind of his Secretary as to what was the true position of the Government.

What a spectacle does the President's vacillating and disingenuous course present! He allows one Secretary to resign rather than abandon a policy which he has agreed upon. Scarcely have a few short weeks elapsed, and he accepts the resignation of another rather than adhere to that very policy. He makes an agreement with gentlemen which, while he admits that they have faithfully kept it on their part, he himself evades and repudiates. And this he does rather than redress a wrong, correct an error-what he himself considers an error-committed by a subordinate, without his orders and contrary to his wishes! It was at least due to Mr. Floyd, who, as one of his Cabinet, had officially and personally stood by his administration from its very commencement- through go do report and through evil report-to have explained to him that he was, in the President's opinion, laboring under a misapprehension; at least to have said to him, "You are mistaken about this matter: do not leave me on a false issue." But no; he coldly, ungraciously, yet promptly, receives the resignation without a syllable of remonstrance, and thus tacitly but unequivocally accepts without shame the issue presented. He does not deny that the faith of his Government is pledged, but he deliberately refuses to redeem it.

WM. PORCHER MILES.
LAWRENCE M. KEITT.

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January 2, 1861 - Memorandum of Arrangements

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Union Correspondence, etc.

HEADQUARTERS OF THE ARMY,
Washington, January 2, 1861.

Memorandum of arrangements.[1]

Telegram sent to Mr. A.H. Schultz, 64 Cedar street, P.O. box 3462, New York City, that his propositions are entertained and that a staff officer will be in the city to-morrow evening to conclude arrangements.

Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas is directed, first, to satisfy himself that Mr. Schultz's agency is reliable, then to cause the steamer to be prepared for sea as soon as practicable, provided the terms be reasonable; then to cause two hundred well instructed men with, say, three officers, to be embarked from Governor's Island, with three months' subsistence, including fresh beef and vegetables,a nd ample ammunition; also, one hundred extra stand of arms. Instructions to be sent by Colonel Thomas in writing to Major Anderson that should a fire likely to prove injurious be opened upon any vessel bringing re-enforcements or supplies, or upon her boats from any battery in the harbor, the guns of Fort Sumter may be employed to silence such fire, and the same in case of like firing upon Fort Sumter itself.

The orders to the steamer and the troops on board will strictly enjoin complete concealment of the presence of the latter when approaching the bay; Major Anderson to be warned to stand on his guard against all telegrams, and to be informed that measures will soon be taken to enable him to correspond with the Government by sea and Wilmington, N.C.

Colonel Thomas is further directed to inform Major Anderson that his conduct meets with the emphatic approbation of the highest in authority; Major Anderson to be also informed that further re-enforcements will be sent him if necessary.

Lieutenant Colonel LORENZO THOMAS,
Assistant Adjutant-General, Washington, D.C.

  1. In the handwriting of General Scott.


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January 3, 1861 - Secretary ad interim Joseph Holt to Secretary Benjamin Stanton

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Union Correspondence, etc.

WAR DEPARTMENT,
Washington, January 3, 1861

Honorable BENJAMIN STANTON,
Chairman Committee on Military Affairs, House of Representatives:

SIR: In answer to your letter, asking for information on certain points specified in a resolution adopted by the Committee on Military Affairs of the House of Representatives on the 18th ultimo, I have the honor to state as follows:

According to the latest report of the Engineer officer having charge of the construction of the defenses of the harbor of Charleston, everything practicable had been done of place Fort Moultrie in an efficient condition, and, with a proper garrison, it was deemed susceptible of an energetic defense. There were then employed at that work an officer and one hundred and twenty workmen, independent of regular garrison.[1]

On the evening of the 26th ultimo Major Robert Anderson, First Artillery in command of the troops in Charleston Harbor, apprehensive of the safety of his command from the insecurity of the fort, and having reason to believe that the South Carolinians contemplated or were preparing to proceed to a hostile act against him, and desiring to prevent a collision and effusion of blood, evacuated Fort Moultrie after having orders for spiking the cannon and disabling some of the carriages, and removed his forces to Fort Sumter, where they now are. Castle Pinckney was at the date of the latest report in good condition as regards preparation and with a proper garrison as defensible as it can be made. One officer and thirty workmen were engaged in the repair of the cisterns, replacing decayed baguettes, and attending to other matters of detail.

Since the date of the reports referred to, Fort Moultrie and Castle Pinckney have been taken possession of by troops of the State of South Carolina, acting under the orders of the governor, and are now held by those troops, with all the armament and other public property therein at the time of their seizure. I inclose a statement (Numbers 1.) of the number and description of ordnance, and arms at the date of the last returns at Fort Moultrie, Castle Pinckney, and Charleston Arsenal, respectively. That arsenal, with all its contents, was also taken possession of on the 30th ultimo by an armed by body of South Carolina troops, acting under orders of the governor of the State, as represented in the following report of Frederick C. Humphreys, military storekeeper of ordnance, in charge, viz:

This arsenal was taken by force of arms by the militia of South Carolina, by order of Governor Pickens. The commanding officer was allowed to salute his flag before lowering it with one gun for each State now in the Union (thirty-two), and to take it with him, and the detachment to occupy the quarters until instruction from Washington can be obtained.

At that time the force under his control consisted of nine enlisted soldiers of ordnance and six hired men.

The other information asked for in regard to the number and description of arms "distributed since the 1st day of January, 1860, and to whom and at what price," will be found in the accompanying statements (Nos. 2 and 3) from the Ordnance Bureau.[2] It is deemed proper to state, in further explanation of statement Numbers 2, that where no distribution appears to have been made to a State or Territory, or where the amount of the distribution is small, it is because such State or Territory has not called for all the arms due on its quotas, and remains a creditor for dues not distributed, which can be obtained at any time on requisition therefor.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. HOLT,
Secretary of War ad interim.

[Inclosure No. 1.]

December 21, 1860 - Inventory by Captain William Maynadier

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Union Correspondence, etc.

ORDNANCE OFFICE,
Washington, December 21, 1860.

Fort Moultrie; 14 32-pounder guns, iron; 16 24-pounder guns, iron; 10, 8-inch columbiads, iron; 5 8-inch sea-coast howitzers, iron; 4 24-pounder flank howitzers, iron; 2 12-pounder field howitzers, brass; 4 6-pounder field guns, brass. Total, 55.

Castle Pinckney: 4 42-pounder guns, iron; 14 24-pounder guns, iron; 4 8-inch sea-coast howitzers, iron. Total, 22.

United States Arsenal: 2 6-pounder field guns, old iron ; 5 24-pounder field howitzers, old iron; 502 muskets, flint-lock, caliber .69; 5,720 same altered to percussion; 11,693 muskets made as percussion, caliber .69; 2,808 rifles, made as percussion, caliber .54; 6 same, altered with longrange sights; 566 Hall's rifles, flint-lock; 4 carbines, percussion, rifled; 9 United States percussion carbines; 815 pistols, flint-lock; 300 pistols, made as percussion. Total, 22,430.

WM. MAYNADIER,
Captain of Ordnance.

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  1. See De Russy to Floyd, December 20, 1860.
  2. Nos. 2 and 3 not found.


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December 21, 1860 - Inventory by Captain William Maynadier

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Union Correspondence, etc.

ORDNANCE OFFICE,
Washington, December 21, 1860.

Fort Moultrie; 14 32-pounder guns, iron; 16 24-pounder guns, iron; 10, 8-inch columbiads, iron; 5 8-inch sea-coast howitzers, iron; 4 24-pounder flank howitzers, iron; 2 12-pounder field howitzers, brass; 4 6-pounder field guns, brass. Total, 55.

Castle Pinckney: 4 42-pounder guns, iron; 14 24-pounder guns, iron; 4 8-inch sea-coast howitzers, iron. Total, 22.

United States Arsenal: 2 6-pounder field guns, old iron ; 5 24-pounder field howitzers, old iron; 502 muskets, flint-lock, caliber .69; 5,720 same altered to percussion; 11,693 muskets made as percussion, caliber .69; 2,808 rifles, made as percussion, caliber .54; 6 same, altered with longrange sights; 566 Hall's rifles, flint-lock; 4 carbines, percussion, rifled; 9 United States percussion carbines; 815 pistols, flint-lock; 300 pistols, made as percussion. Total, 22,430.

WM. MAYNADIER,
Captain of Ordnance.

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January 4, 1861 - Assistant Adjutant-General Lorenzo Thomas to Lieutenant General Winfield Scott

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Union Correspondence, etc.

NEW YORK, January 4, 1861.

Lieutenant General WINFIELD SCOTT,
Washington, D.C.:

DEAR GENERAL: I had an interview with Mr. Schultz at 8 o'clock last evening, and found him to be, as you supposed, the commission, and together we visit Mr. M.O. Roberts. The latter looks exclusively to the dollars, whilst Mr. S. is acting for the good of his country. Mr. R. required $1,500 per day for tend days, besides the cost of 300 tons of coal, which I declined; but, after a long conversation, I became satisfied that the movement could be made with his vessel, the Star of the West, without exciting suspicion. I finally chartered her at $1,250 per day. She is running on the New Orleans route, and will clear for that port; but no notice will be put in the papers, and persons seeing the ship moving from the dock will suppose she is on her regular trip. Major Eaton, commissary of subsistence fully enters intro my views. He will see Mr. Roberts, hand him a list of the supplies with the places where they may be procured, and the purchases will be made on the ship's account. In this way no public machinery will be used.

To-night I pass over to Governor's Island to do what is necessary, i.e., have 300 stand of arms and ammunition on the wharf, and 200 men ready to march on board Mr. Schultz's steam-tugs about nightfall to-morrow to go to the steamer, passing very slowly down the bay. I shall cut off all communication between the island and the cities until Tuesday morning, when I expect the steamer will be safely moored at Fort Sumter.

I have seen and conversed with Colonel Scott, and also saw your daughter at your house. After leaving you, I obtained the key of the outer door of the office, but could nowhere find the key of your door or of mine, so failed to get the chart. This is of little moment, as the captain of the steamer is perfectly familiar with the entrance of Charleston.

I telegraphed you this morning as follows:

Arrangements made as proposed; to leave to-morrow evening; send map.

I will now leave the office, where I am writing, to proceed to the island.

Very respectfully, General, your obedient servant,

L. THOMAS,
Assistant Adjutant-General.

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January 5, 1861 - Assistant Adjutant-General Lorenzo Thomas to Major Theophilius Holmes

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Union Correspondence, etc.

HEADQUARTERS OF THE ARMY,
New York, January 5, 1861.

Maj. T.H. HOLMES,
Eighth Infantry,
Superintendent Recruiting Service, Fort Columbus:

SIR: By direction of the General-in-Chief, you will detach this evening two hundred of the best-instructed men at Fort Columbus, by the steamship Star of the West, to re-enforce the garrison at Fort Sumter, South Carolina.

They will be furnished with arms, and, if possible, one hundred rounds of ammunition per man. Orders will be given to the proper officers of the staff department to furnish one hundred stand of spare arms and subsistence for three months.

The officers assigned to duty with the detachment are Lieuts. C.R. Woods, Ninth Infantry; W.A. Webb, Fifth Infantry; C.W. Thomas, First Infantry, and Asst. Surg. P.G.S. Ten Broeck, Medical Department, all of whom will report for duty to Major Anderson, commanding Fort Sumter.

Yours,

L. THOMAS.
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January 5, 1861 - Assistant Adjutant-General Lorenzo Thomas to 1st Lieutenant Charles Woods

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Union Correspondence, etc.

HEADQUARTERS, January 5, 1861.

First Lieutenant CHARLES R. WOODS,
Ninth Infantry, Fort Columbus:

SIR: The steamship Star of the West has been chartered to take two hundred recruits from Fort Columbus to Fort Sumter, South Carolina, to re-enforce the garrison at that post. You are placed in command of the detachment, assisted by Lieuts. W.A. Webb, Fifth Infantry, C.W. Thomas, First Infantry, and Asst. Surg. P.G.S. Ten Broeck, Medical Department. Arms and ammunition for your men will be placed don the steamer and three months' supply of subsistence.

The duty upon which you are now placed by direction of the General-in-Chief will require great care and energy on your part to execute it successfully, for it is important that all your movements be kept as secret as possible. Accordingly on approaching the Charleston bar, you will place below decks your entire force, in order that only the ordinary crew may be seen by persons from the shore or on boarding the vessel. Every precaution must be resorted to prevent being fired upon by batteries erected on either Sullivan's or James Island.

Yours,

L. THOMAS.

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January 5, 1861 - Assistant Adjutant-General Lorenzo Thomas to Major Robert Anderson

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Union Correspondence, etc.

HEADQUARTERS OF THE ARMY,
New York, January 5, 1861.

Major ROBERT ANDERSON,
First Artillery, Commanding Fort Sumter:

SIR: In accordance with the instructions of the General-in-Chief, I yesterday chartered the steamship Star of the West to re-enforce your small garrison with two hundred well-instructed recruits from Fort Columbus, under First Lieutenant C.R. Woods, Ninth Infantry, assisted by Lieuts. W.A. Webb, Fifth Infantry; C.W. Thomass, First Infantry, and Asst. Surg. P.G.S. Ten Broeck, Medical Department, all of whom you will retain until further orders. Besides arms for the men, one hundred spare arms and all the cartridges in the arsenal on Governor's Island will be sent; likewise, three months' subsistence for the detachment and six months' desiccated and fresh vegetables, with three or four days' fresh beef for your entire force. Further re-enforcements will be sent if necessary.

Should a fire, likely to prove injurious, be opened upon any vessel bringing re-enforcements or supplies, or upon tow-boats within the reach of your guns, they may be employed to silence such fire; and you may act in like manner in case a fire is opened upon Fort Sumter itself.

The General-in-Chief desires me to communicate the fact that your conduct meets which the emphatic approbation of the highest in authority.

You are warned to be upon your guard against all telegrams, as false ones may be attempted to be passed upon you. Measures will soon be taken to enable you to correspond with the Government by sea and Wilmington, N.C.

You will send to Fort Columbus by the return of the steamer all your sick, otherwise inefficient, officers and enlisted men. Fill up the two companies with the recruits now sent, and muster the residue as a detachment.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

L. THOMAS,
Assistant Adjutant-General.

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January 5, 1861 - Paymaster George Hutter to Paymaster-General Benjamin Larned

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Union Correspondence, etc.

CHARLESTON, S.C., January 5, 1861.

To the PAYMASTER-GENERAL:

SIR: The governor of this State assumes the authority to interfere with my official duties. Mr. Pressley, the assistant treasurer, informed me a few days since that he had orders from the governor not to pay my checks to any one stationed at Fort Sumter, and asked me if, I would give any more hereafter; to which I replied I would not refuse to pay accounts presented to me from there or any other place as long as I had funds. I heard nothing more of the matter until this morning, when I called at the sub-treasury office. The clerk told me (Mr. Pressley not being there) that he had orders not to pay checks. I then expressed a wish to withdraw my funds, and was refused for the present-however, asked to call again on Monday, when the assistant treasurer would be there himself. My situation here as an officer of the Army is very unpleasant and has been for some weeks past. I do hope a change will soon be made.

Very respectfully, &c.,

GEO. C. HUTTER,

Paymaster, U.S. Army.

[Indorsement.]

January 8, 1861 - Paymaster-General Benjamin Larned to Lieutenant General Winfield Scott

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Union Correspondence, etc.

PAYMASTER-GENERAL'S OFFICE,
January 8, 1861.

The Paymaster-General respectfully submits, for the information of the Commanding General of the Army, the within copy of a letter from Major Hutter, reporting interference on the part of the governor of South Carolina with his official duties.

BENJ. F. LARNED,
Paymaster-General.

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January 8, 1861 - Paymaster-General Benjamin Larned to Lieutenant General Winfield Scott

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Union Correspondence, etc.

PAYMASTER-GENERAL'S OFFICE,
January 8, 1861.

The Paymaster-General respectfully submits, for the information of the Commanding General of the Army, the within copy of a letter from Major Hutter, reporting interference on the part of the governor of South Carolina with his official duties.

BENJ. F. LARNED,
Paymaster-General.

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January 6, 1861 - Major Robert Anderson to Adjutant-General Samuel Cooper

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Union Correspondence, etc.

FORT SUMTER, S.C., January 6, 1861

Colonel S. COOPER, Adjutant-General:

COLONEL: Through the courtesy of Governor Pickens I am enabled to make this communication, which will be taken to Washington by my brother, Larz Anderson, esq. I have the honor to report my command in excellent health and in fine spirits. We are daily adding to the strength of our position by closing up embrasures which we shall not use, mounting guns, &c. The South Carolinians are also very active in erecting batteries and preparing for a conflict, which I pray God may not occur. Batteries have been constructed bearing upon and, I presume, commanding the entrance to the harbor. They are also to-day busily at work on a battery at Fort Johnson, intended to fire against me. My position will, should there be no treachery among the workmen, whom we are compelled to retain for the present enable me to hold this fort against any force which can be brought against me, and it would enable me in the event of a war, to annoy the South Carolinians by preventing them from throwing supplies into their new posts except by the out-of-the-way passage through Stone River. AT present, it would be dangerous and difficult for a vessel from without to enter the harbor, in consequence of the batteries which are already erected and being erected. I shall not ask for any increase of my command, because I do not know what the ulterior views of the Government are. We are now, or soon will be, cut off from all communication, unless by means of a powerful fleet, which shall have the ability to carry the batteries at the mouth of this harbor.

Trusting in God that nothing will occur to array a greater number of States than have already taken ground against the General Government,

I am, colonel, respectfully, your obedient servant,

ROBERT ANDERSON,
Major, First Artillery, Commanding.

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January 7, 1861 - Lieutenant-General Winfield Scott to 1st Lieutenant Charles Woods

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Union Correspondence, etc.

HEADQUARTERS OF THE ARMY
Washington, January 7, 1861

COMMANDING OFFICER, DETACHMENT U.S. ARMY,
On board steamship Star of the West,
Supposed to be near Charleston, S.C.:

SIR: This communication is sent through the commander of the U.S. steam sloop-of-war Brooklyn.

His mission is twofold: First, to afford aid and succor in case your ship be shattered or injured; second, to convey this order of recall for your detachment in case it cannot land at Fort Sumter, to proceed to Fort Monroe, Hampton Roads, and there await further orders.

In case of your return to Hampton Roads, send a telegraphic message here at once from Norfolk.

Yours, very respectfully,

W. SCOTT.

P.S. - On arrival at Fort Monroe, land your troops and discharge the ship.

W. SCOTT.

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January 9, 1861 - Major Robert Anderson to Adjutant-General Samuel Cooper

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Union Correspondence, etc.

No. 17.]

FORT SUMTER, S.C., January 9, 1861.
(Received A.G.O., January 12.)

Colonel S. COOPER, Adjutant-General:

COLONEL: I have the honor to send herewith the correspondence which took place to-day between the governor of South Carolina and myself in relation to the firing by his batteries on a vessel bearing our flag. Lieutenant Talbot, whose health is very much impaired, will be the bearer of these dispatches, and he will be enabled to give you full information in reference to this and to all other matters.

I am, colonel, your obedient servant,

ROBERT ANDERSON,
Major, First Artillery, Commanding.

[Inclosures.]

January 9, 1861 - Major Robert Anderson to Governor Francis Pickens

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Union Correspondence, etc.

FORT SUMTER, S.C., January 9, 1861

To his Excellency the GOVERNOR OF SOUTH CAROLINA:

SIR: Two of your batteries fired this morning upon an unarmed vessel bearing the flag of my Government. As I have not been notified that war has been declared by South Carolina against the Government of the United States, I cannot but think that this hostile act was committed without your sanction or authority. Under that hope, and that alone, did I refrain from opening fire upon your batteries. I have the honor, therefore, respectfully to ask whether the above mentioned act-one, I believe, without a parallel in the history of our country or of any other civilized government-was committed in obedience to your instructions, and to notify you, if it be not disclaimed, that I must regard it as na act of war, and that I shall not, after a reasonable time for the return of my messenger, permit any vessels to pass within range of the guns of my fort. In order to save, as far as in my power, the shedding of blood, I beg that you will have due notification of this my decision given to all concerned. Hoping, however, that your answer may be such as will justify a further continuance of forbearance upon my part,

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

ROBERT ANDERSON,
Major, First Artillery, Commanding.

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January 9, 1861 - Governor Francis Pickens to Major Robert Anderson

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Union Correspondence, etc.

STATE OF SOUTH CAROLINA, EXECUTIVE OFFICE,
Headquarters, Charleston, January 9, 1861.

Major ROBERT ANDERSON,
Commanding Fort Sumter:

SIR: Your letter has been received. In it you make certain statements which very plainly show that you have not been fully informed by your Government of the precise relations which now exist between it and the State of South Carolina. Official information has been communicated to the Government of the United States that the political connection heretofore existing between the State of South Carolina and the States which were known as the United States had ceased, and that the State of South Carolina had resumed all the power it had delegated to the United States under the compact known as the Constitution of the United States. The right which the State of South Carolina possessed to change the political relations which it held with other States under the Constitution of the United States has been solemnly asserted by the people of this State in convention, and now does not admit of discussion. In anticipation of the ordinance of secession, of which the President of the United States has received official notification, it was understood by him that sending any re-enforcement of the troops of the United States in the harbor of Charleston would be regarded by the constituted authorities of the State of South Carolina as an act of hostility, and at the same time it was understood by him that any change in the occupation of the forts in the harbor of Charleston would in like manner be regarded as an act of hostility. Either or both of these events, occurring during the period in which the State of South Carolina constituted a part of the United States, was then distinctly notified to the President of the United States as an act or acts of hostility; because either or both would be regarded, and could only be intended, to dispute the right of the State of South Carolina to that political independence which she has always asserted and will always retain. Whatever would have been, during the continuance of this State as a member of the United States, an act of hostility, became much more so when the State of South Carolina had dissolved the connection with the Government of the United States. After the secession of the State of South Carolina, Fort Sumter continued in the possession of the troops of the United States. How that fort is at this time in the possession of the troops of the United States it is not now necessary to discuss. It will suffice to say that the occupancy of that fort has been regarded by the State of South Carolina as the first act of positive hostility committed by the troops of the United States within the limits of this State, and was in this light regarded as so unequivocal that it occasioned the termination of the negotiations then pending at Washington between the Commissioners of the State of South Carolina and the President of the United States. The attempt to re-enforce the troops now at Fort Sumter, or to retake and resume possession of the forts within the waters of this State, which you abandoned, after spiking the guns placed there, and doing otherwise much damage, cannot be regarded by the authorities of the State as indicative of any other purpose than the coercion of the State by the armed force of the Government. To repel such an attempt is too plainly its duty to allow it to be discussed. But while defending its waters, the authorities of the State have been careful so to conduct the affairs of the State that no act, however necessary for its defense, should lead to an useless waste of life. Special agents, therefore, have been off the bar to warn all approaching vessels, if armed or unarmed, and having troops to re-enforce the forts on board, not to enter the harbor of Charleston, and special orders have been given to the commanders of all forts and batteries not to fire at such vessels until a shot fired across their bows would warn them of the prohibition or the State. Under these circumstances, the Star of the West, it is understood this morning attempted to enter this harbor, with troops on board, and having been notified that she could not enter, was fired into. The act is perfectly justified by me. In regard to your threat in regard to vessels in the harbor, it is only necessary to say that you must judge of your own responsibilities. Your position in this harbor has been tolerated by the authorities of the State, and while the act of which you complain is in perfect consistency with the rights and duties of the State, it is not perceived how far the conduct which you propose to adopt can find a parallel in the history of any country, or be reconciled with any other purpose of your Government than that of imposing upon this State the condition of a conquered province.

F. W. PICKENS.

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January 9, 1861 - Major Robert Anderson to Governor Francis Pickens

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Union Correspondence, etc.

FORT SUMTER, S.C., January 9, 1861

To his Excellency the GOVERNOR OF SOUTH CAROLINA:

SIR: Two of your batteries fired this morning upon an unarmed vessel bearing the flag of my Government. As I have not been notified that war has been declared by South Carolina against the Government of the United States, I cannot but think that this hostile act was committed without your sanction or authority. Under that hope, and that alone, did I refrain from opening fire upon your batteries. I have the honor, therefore, respectfully to ask whether the above mentioned act-one, I believe, without a parallel in the history of our country or of any other civilized government-was committed in obedience to your instructions, and to notify you, if it be not disclaimed, that I must regard it as na act of war, and that I shall not, after a reasonable time for the return of my messenger, permit any vessels to pass within range of the guns of my fort. In order to save, as far as in my power, the shedding of blood, I beg that you will have due notification of this my decision given to all concerned. Hoping, however, that your answer may be such as will justify a further continuance of forbearance upon my part,

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

ROBERT ANDERSON,
Major, First Artillery, Commanding.

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January 9, 1861 - Governor Francis Pickens to Major Robert Anderson

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Union Correspondence, etc.

STATE OF SOUTH CAROLINA, EXECUTIVE OFFICE,
Headquarters, Charleston, January 9, 1861.

Major ROBERT ANDERSON,
Commanding Fort Sumter:

SIR: Your letter has been received. In it you make certain statements which very plainly show that you have not been fully informed by your Government of the precise relations which now exist between it and the State of South Carolina. Official information has been communicated to the Government of the United States that the political connection heretofore existing between the State of South Carolina and the States which were known as the United States had ceased, and that the State of South Carolina had resumed all the power it had delegated to the United States under the compact known as the Constitution of the United States. The right which the State of South Carolina possessed to change the political relations which it held with other States under the Constitution of the United States has been solemnly asserted by the people of this State in convention, and now does not admit of discussion. In anticipation of the ordinance of secession, of which the President of the United States has received official notification, it was understood by him that sending any re-enforcement of the troops of the United States in the harbor of Charleston would be regarded by the constituted authorities of the State of South Carolina as an act of hostility, and at the same time it was understood by him that any change in the occupation of the forts in the harbor of Charleston would in like manner be regarded as an act of hostility. Either or both of these events, occurring during the period in which the State of South Carolina constituted a part of the United States, was then distinctly notified to the President of the United States as an act or acts of hostility; because either or both would be regarded, and could only be intended, to dispute the right of the State of South Carolina to that political independence which she has always asserted and will always retain. Whatever would have been, during the continuance of this State as a member of the United States, an act of hostility, became much more so when the State of South Carolina had dissolved the connection with the Government of the United States. After the secession of the State of South Carolina, Fort Sumter continued in the possession of the troops of the United States. How that fort is at this time in the possession of the troops of the United States it is not now necessary to discuss. It will suffice to say that the occupancy of that fort has been regarded by the State of South Carolina as the first act of positive hostility committed by the troops of the United States within the limits of this State, and was in this light regarded as so unequivocal that it occasioned the termination of the negotiations then pending at Washington between the Commissioners of the State of South Carolina and the President of the United States. The attempt to re-enforce the troops now at Fort Sumter, or to retake and resume possession of the forts within the waters of this State, which you abandoned, after spiking the guns placed there, and doing otherwise much damage, cannot be regarded by the authorities of the State as indicative of any other purpose than the coercion of the State by the armed force of the Government. To repel such an attempt is too plainly its duty to allow it to be discussed. But while defending its waters, the authorities of the State have been careful so to conduct the affairs of the State that no act, however necessary for its defense, should lead to an useless waste of life. Special agents, therefore, have been off the bar to warn all approaching vessels, if armed or unarmed, and having troops to re-enforce the forts on board, not to enter the harbor of Charleston, and special orders have been given to the commanders of all forts and batteries not to fire at such vessels until a shot fired across their bows would warn them of the prohibition or the State. Under these circumstances, the Star of the West, it is understood this morning attempted to enter this harbor, with troops on board, and having been notified that she could not enter, was fired into. The act is perfectly justified by me. In regard to your threat in regard to vessels in the harbor, it is only necessary to say that you must judge of your own responsibilities. Your position in this harbor has been tolerated by the authorities of the State, and while the act of which you complain is in perfect consistency with the rights and duties of the State, it is not perceived how far the conduct which you propose to adopt can find a parallel in the history of any country, or be reconciled with any other purpose of your Government than that of imposing upon this State the condition of a conquered province.

F. W. PICKENS.

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January 9, 1861 - Captain John Foster to Colonel Joseph Totten

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Union Correspondence, etc.

FORT SUMTER, S.C., January 9, 1861.

General TOTTEN;

MY DEAR SIR: I have only a moment to write by Lieutenant Meade [?], who comes with dispatches from Major Anderson. I wish to assure you, however, that the officers of your corps are doing everything in their power to make this work impregnable, even with the present small garrison of seventy men. We even mount all the guns, as we can do it much more rapidly than the garrison. We have twenty-nine guns on the first tier and eleven on the barbette tier. Four 8-inch columbiads are ready to mount to-morrow. I shall place the 10-inch on the parade as mortars.

The firing upon the Star of the West this morning by the batteries on Morris Island opened the war, but Major Anderson hopes that the delay of sending to Washington may possibly prevent civil war. The hope, although a small one, may be the thread that prevents the sundering of the Union. We are none the less determined to defend ourselves to the last extremity. I am in want of funds,and would respectfully urge that as soon as possible $15,000 may be placed to my credit in New York. In haste.

Very respectfully,

J.G. FOSTER,
Captain, Engineers.

P.S. - I beg to refer you to Lieutenant Meade [?] for particulars.

J.G.F.

[Memorandum.]

Received January 12 by Lieutenant Talbot, U.S. Army.

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January 10, 1861 - Secretary John Holt to Major Robert Anderson

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Union Correspondence, etc.

WAR DEPARTMENT, January 10, 1861

Major ROBERT ANDERSON,
First Artillery, Commanding at Fort Sumter, S.C.:

SIR: Your dispatches to Numbers 16, inclusive have been received. Before the receipt of that of 31st December,[1] announcing that the Government might re-enforce you at its leisure, and that you regarded yourself safe in your present position, some two hundred and fifty instructed recruits had been ordered to proceed from Governor's Island to Fort Sumter on the Star of the West, for the purpose of strengthening the force under your command. The probability is, from the current rumors of to-day, that this vessel has been fired into by the South Carolinians, and has not been able to reach you. To meet all contingencies, the Brooklyn has been dispatched, with instructions not to cross the bar at the harbor of Charleston, but to afford to the Star of the West and those on board all the assistance they may need, and in the event the recruits have not effected a landing at Fort Sumter they will return to Fort Monroe.

I avail myself of the occasion to express the great satisfaction of the Government at the forbearance, discretion and firmness with which you have acted, amid the perplexing and difficult circumstances in which you have been placed. You will continue, as heretofore, to act strictly on the defensive; to avoid, by all means compatible with the safety of your command, a collision with the hostile forces by which you are surrounded. But for the movement so promptly and brilliantly executed, by which you transferred your forces to Fort Sumter, the probability is that ere this the defenselessness of your position would have invited an attack, which, there is reason to believe, was contemplated, if not in active preparation, which must have led to the effusion of blood, that has been thus so happily prevented. The movement, therefore, was in every way admirable, alike for its humanity [and] patriotism, as for its soldiership.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. HOLT.
Secretary of War ad interim.

  1. Received January 5, 1861


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January 12, 1861 - Captain John Foster to Colonel Joseph Totten

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Union Correspondence, etc.

FORT SUMTER, S.C., January 12, 1861

General JOS. G. TOTTEN,
Chief Engineer U.S. Army, Washington, D.C.:

GENERAL: The sudden resolution to send a joint commission to Washington enables me to write only a few lines to tell you that my operations are going steadily on. Seventeen guns are now mounted on the barbette tier, and in good working order. Four of these are columbiads. Owing to the breaking of the truck, we did not accomplish much yesterday beyond hoisting carriages to the terre-plain (upper). My force is gradually growing less and less,owing to the fears of the approaching conflict among the men. By to night I may not have more than a dozen men for work. This is unavoidable, because it will not do to force the fearful or seditious men to remain. I shall, however, get nearly all the guns up before all leave. Yesterday a commission came from Governor Pickens to summon this fort to surrender. It was composed of General Jamison, Secretary of War, and Judge McGrath, Secretary of State of South Carolina. They subsequently (during the conference with us) moderated the matter somewhat, so as to have it understood that their demand was not to alter the present status. The major proposed to send a joint commission to Washington, which is accepted this morning, and Lieutenant Hall leaves for this purpose.

I received a dispatch, from Mrs. Foster, after her arrival in Washington, which I understood to means that I had to my credit there $15,000. This gives me great satisfaction, for I was becoming embarrassed for want of funds. You can rely upon my doing all that I can to secure this work, and to strengthen the defense. I am most efficiently supported, by Lieutenants Snyder and Meade, who are exerting themselves to the utmost, and I hope the Department will give them full credit for their zeal and efficiency.

The temper of the people of this State is becoming every day more bitter, and I do not see how we can avoid a bloody conflict. I wish, therefore, to say to you that nearly all of my papers and vouchers are in my office in town, whence I have not been permitted to remove them. All of my personal effects are in the house that I occupied on Sullivan's Island, with the exception of some few things that I have here. The suddenness of the movement over here did not permit me an opportunity to remove anything, and my active operations in the matter did not incline the authorities in my favor so as to permit me to remove anything afterwards. I shall, however, endeavor to leave everything relating to my responsibilities and accounts in as good order as possible. You must excuse my referring to these matters, which are partly personal, because if we are attacked, it may be by overpowering numbers, and I have made up my mind to defend the work, as far as I am concerned, to the last extremity. The main ship channel was closed yesterday morning by sinking four hulks across, it upon the bar. Last night a good deal of work was done on Fort Moultrie to defile it from the fire of this fort. There is a large steamer outside of the bar, apparently a man-of-war.

The health of the command is good, and their spirits excellent. In haste.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J.G. FOSTER,
Captain of Engineers.

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DISPATCHES 101-150

January 12, 1861 - 2nd Lieutenant Norman Hall to Adjutant-General Samuel Cooper

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Union Correspondence, etc.

CHARLESTON, S.C., January 12, 1861.

Colonel S. COOPER, U.S. Army:

Colonel Hayne, of South Carolina, is bearer of dispatches from the governor of his State. I accompany him from Major Anderson. We start on the two o'clock train this afternoon.

NORMAN J. HALL.

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January 14, 1861 - Captain John Foster to General Joseph Totten

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Union Correspondence, etc.

FORT SUMTER, S.C., January 14, 1861

General JOS. G. TOTTEN,
Chief Engineer U.S. Army, Washington, D. C.:

GENERAL: I have the honor to inform you that the facilities for mail communication between this fort and the city of Charleston have been restored by order of Governor Pickens. The arrangement is for one of my boats to receive the mail at Fort Johnson, wither it is to be brought every day at 12 o'clock, and to deliver the mail from the fort at the same time to be taken to the office in the city. The reason assigned for this particular arrangement is that it will avoid all chances for rencounters and bloodshed between our boats' crews and riotous persons on the wharves in the city. All letters from the Department will, in all probability, be received.

Since the hasty letter sent by Lieutenant Hall, nothing of marked importance has transpired. The Carolinians are hard at work on Fort Moultrie raising sand-bag and earth merlous between all the guns that look in this direction, in a similar manner to the merlous that I constructed on the front facing the sand hills. The force on the island is about 700 men, as I saw them drilling this evening in about that number.

I think that they have transferred several of the guns from Fort Moultrie and Castle Pinckney to the batteries on Morris Island, with the object of strengthening them, since they have found by the firing on the Star of the West that they are well placed. There is another battery on the upper end of Sullivan's Island, out of the reach of our guns, to guard the Maffitt Channel. The main ship channel is so much obstructed by the four hulks that they sunk in it on the 11th that vessels find the greatest difficulty in getting out or in, even with the harbor pilots, who can be used with safety by vessels that wish to run the gauntlet with re-enforcements for us. I do not, however, consider it good policy to send re-enforcements here at this time. We can hold our own as long as it is necessary to do so. If any force is sent here it must have the strength and facilities for landing and carrying the batteries on Morris or Sullivan's Island. The former will be the easier operation. But if the whole South is to secede from the Union, a conflict here and a civil war can only be avoided by giving up this fort sooner or later. We are, however, all prepared to go all lengths in its defense if the Government requires it. We have now, besides the twenty-nine guns mounted in the first tier (three 8-inch howitzers, five 42-pounders, and twenty-one 32-pounders), nineteen guns mounted on the third or barbette tier (six 8-inch columbiads, five 8-inch sea-coast howitzers, two 42-pounders, and six 24-pounders). These are all well placed for firing on Fort Moultrie, Morris Island, and Fort Johnson. As fast as the remaining guns are mounted they will the same object. Every precaution has been taken to secure the shutters for the embrasures and loop-holes and the main gates. The latter have been re-enforced by a solid wall three feet thick by five feet high with a narrow doorway of 20-inch width to serve for passage, and also for embrasure of an 8-inch howitzer in case of attack. A discharge of canister from this gun will sweep the wharf. The lanyard of this gun is carried back through a hole in the second gate. The lanyards of the two guns to sweep the landing to the right and left are also brought inside, to insure those guns being fired, even if the retiring guard forgets to do it while upon the outside. A large number of shells have been arranged with friction tubes to be used with long lanyards, so that the shell, being rolled over or suffered to fall from the edge of the parapet, will explode as it gets to the end of the line. The room over the gateway has also been supplied with hand grenades.

The weather since the command has occupied the fort has been very bad, and the whole force including the camp followers, have been suffered to quarter in the officer's quarters. This, together with the firing of the guns at the gateway without raising the windows, by which most of the glass on the gorge and many of the sashes were broken, has caused considerable damage to the quarters. I regard it, however, as of small moment in comparison with the necessity for keeping the command well housed and also as well warmed as the small stock of fuel will allow. The damage to the windows has been repaired temporarily. I have regarded any expense not strictly required for the defense as unnecessary under the present aspect of affairs.

During the continuance of the present arrangements for the mail I will keep you fully informed of everything that transpires.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J.G. FOSTER,
Captain, Engineers.

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January 16, 1861 - Secretary Joseph Holt to Major Robert Anderson

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Union Correspondence, etc.

WAR DEPARTMENT, January 16, 1861

Major ROBERT ANDERSON,
First Artillery, Commanding Fort Sumter:

SIR: Your dispatch Numbers 17, covering your correspondence with the governor of South Carolina, has been received from the hand of Lieutenant Talbot. You rightly designate the firing into the Star of the West as "an act of war," and one which was actually committed without the slightest provocation. Had their act been perpetrated by a foreign nation, it would have been your imperative duty to have resented it with the whole force of your batteries. As, however, it was the work of the government of South Carolina, which is a member of this confederacy, and was prompted by the passions of a highly-inflamed population of citizens of the United States, your forbearance to return the fire is fully approved by the President. Unfortunately, the Government had not been able to make known to you that the Star of the West had sailed from New York for your relief, and hence, when she made her appearance in the harbor of Charleston, you did not feel the force of the obligation to protect her approach as you would naturally have done had this information reached you.

Your late dispatches, as well as the very intelligent statement of Lieutenant Talbot, have relieved the Government of the apprehensions previously entertained for your safety. In consequence it is not its purpose at present to re-enforce you. The attempt to do so would, no doubt, be attended by a collision of arms and the effusion of blood-a national calamity which the President is most anxious, if possible, to avoid. You will therefore, report frequently your condition, and the character and activity of the preparations, if any, which may be being made for an attack upon the fort, or for obstructing the Government in any endeavors it may make to strengthen your command.

Should your dispatches be of a nature too important to be intrusted to the mails you will convey them by special messengers. Whenever, in your judgment, additional supplies or re-enforcements are necessary for your safety, or for a successful defense of the fort, you will at once communicate the fact to this Department, and a prompt and vigorous effort will be made to forward them.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. HOLT.

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January 16, 1861 - J.S. Black to Lieutenant General Winfield Scott

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Union Correspondence, etc.

DEPARTMENT OF STATE, January 16, 1861

Lieutenant General WINFIELD SCOTT:

DEAR GENERAL; The habitual frankness of your character, the deep interest you take in everything that concerns the public defense, your expressed desire that I should hear and understand your views-these reasons, together with an earnest wish to know my own duty and to do it, induce me to beg you for a little light, which perhaps you alone can shed, upon the present state of our affairs.

1. Is it the duty of the Government to re-enforce Major Anderson?

2. If yes, how soon is it necessary that those re-enforcements should be there?

3. What obstacles exist to prevent the sending of such re-enforcements at any time when it may be necessary to do so?

I trust you will not regard it as presumption in me if I give you the crude notions which I myself have already formed out of very imperfect materials.

A statement of my errors, if errors they be, will enable you to correct them the more easily.

I. It seems now to be settled that Major Anderson and his command at Fort Sumter are not to be withdrawn. The United States Government is not to surrender its last hold upon its sown property in South Carolina. Major Anderson has a position so nearly impregnable that an attack upon him at present is wholly improbable, and he is supplied with provisions which will last him very well for two months. In the mean time fort Sumter is invested on every side by the avowedly hostile forces of South Carolina. It is in a state of siege. They have already prevented communication between its commander and his own Government, both by sea and land. There is no doubt that they intend to continue this state of things, as far as it is in their power to do so. In the course of a few weeks from this time it will become very difficult for him to hold out. The constant labor and anxiety of his men will exhaust their physical power, and this exhaustion, of course, will proceed very much more rapidly as soon as they begin to get short of provision.

If the troops remain in Fort Sumter without any change in their condition, and the hostile attitude of South Carolina remains as it is now, the question of Major Anderson's surrender is one of time only. If the is not to be relieved, is it not entirely clear that he should be ordered to surrender at once? It having been determined that the latter order shall not be given, it follows that relief must be sent him at some time before it is too late to save him.

II. This brings me to the second question; When should the re-enforcements and provisions be sent? Can we justify ourselves in delaying the performance of that duty?

The authorities of South Carolina are improving every moment, and increasing their ability to prevent re-enforcement every hour, while every day that rises sees us with a power diminished to send in the requisite relief. I think it certain that Major Anderson could be put in possession of all the defensive powers he needs with very little risk to this Government, if the efforts were made immediately; but it is impossible to predict how much blood or money it may cost if it be postponed for two or three months.

The fact that other persons are to have charge of the Government before the worst comes to the worst has no influence upon my mind, and I take it for granted will not be regarded as a just element in making up your opinion.

The anxiety which an American citizen most feel about any future event which may affect the existence of the country is not less if he expects it to occur on the 5th of March than it would be if he knew it was going to happen on the 3rd.

III. I am persuaded that the difficulty of relieving Major Anderson has been very much magnified to the minds of some persons. From you I shall be able to ascertain whether I am mistaken or they. I am thoroughly satisfied that the battery on Morris Island can give no serious trouble. A vessel going in where the Star of the West went will not be within the reach of the battery's guns longer than from six to ten minutes. The number of shots that could be fired upon her in that time may be easily calculated, and I think the chances of her being seriously injured can be demonstrated by simple arithmetic to be very small. A very unlucky shot might cripple her, to be sure, and therefore the risk is something. But then it is a maxim, not less in war than in peace, that where nothing is ventured nothing can be gained. The removal of the buoys has undoubtedly made the navigation of the channel more difficult. But there are pilots outside of Charleston, and many of the officers of the Navy, who could steer a ship into the harbor by the natural land marks with perfect safety. This, be it remembered,is not now a subject of speculation; the actual experiment has been tried. The Star of the West did pass the battery, and did overcome the difficulties of the navigation, meeting with no serious trouble from either cause. They have tried it; we can say probatum est; and there is an end to the controversy. I am convinced that a pirate, or a slaver, or a smuggler, who could be assured of making five hundred dollars by going into the harbor in the face of all the dangers which now threaten a vessel bearing the American flag, would laugh them to scorn, and to one of our naval officers who has the average of daring, "the danger's self were lure alone."

There really seems to me nothing in the way that ought to stop us except the guns of Fort Moultrie. If they are suffered to open a fire upon a vessel bearing re-enforcements to Fort Sumter, they might stop any other vessel as they stopped the Star of the West. But is it necessary that this intolerable outrage should be submitted to? Would it not be an act of pure self-defense on the part of Major Anderson to silence Fort Moultrie, if it be necessary to do so, for the purpose of incurring the safety of a vessel whose arrival at Fort Sumter is necessary for his protection, and could he not do it effectually? Would the South Carolinians dare to fire upon any vessel which Major Anderson would tell them before hand must be permitted to pass, on pain of his guns being opened upon her assailants? But suppose it impossible for an unarmed vessel to pass the battery, what is the difficulty of sending the Brooklyn or the Macedonian in? I have never heard it alleged that the latter could not cross the bar, and I think if the fact had been so it would have been mentioned in my hearing before this time. It will turn out upon investigation, after all that has been said and sung about the Brooklyn that there is water enough there for her. She draws ordinarily only sixteen and one-half feet, and her draught can be reduced eighteen inches by putting her upon an even keel. The shallowest place will give her eighteen feet of water at night tide. In point of fact, she has crossed that bar more than once. But apart even from these resources, the Government has at its command three or four smaller steamers of light draught and great speed, which could be armed and at sea in a few days,and would not be in the least troubled by any opposition that could be made to their entrance.

It is not, however, necessary to go into these details, with which, I presume, you are fully acquainted. I admit that the state of things may be somewhat worse now than they were a week ago, and are probably getting worse every day; but is not that the strongest reason that can be given for taking time by the forelock?

I feel confident that you will excuse me for making this communication. I have some responsibilities of my own to meet, and I can discharge them only when I understand the subject to which they relate. Your opinion, of course, will be conclusive upon me, for on such a matter I cannot do otherwise than defer to your better judgment. If you think it most consistent with your duty to be silent, I shall have no right to complain.

If you would rather answer orally than make a written reply, I will meet you either at your own quarters or here in the State Department as may best suit your convenience.

I am, most respectfully, yours, &c.,

J.S. BLACK.

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January 21, 1861 - Secretary Joseph Holt to Major Robert Anderson

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Union Correspondence, etc.

No. 19.]
FORT SUMTER, S. C., January 21, 1861
(Received A. G. O., January 24.)

Honorable J. HOLT, Secretary of War:

SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letters, dated the 10th and 19th [16th] instants,and to assure you that I am highly gratified at the unqualified approbation they contain of the course I felt it my duty (under Divine guidance, I trust) to pursue in the unexpectedly perplexing circumstances by which we were surrounded. I shall inclose herewith copies of my correspondence with the officials of this State, and also a copy of the Mercury, which contains an article in reference to supplies for my command.[1] You will understand at once the reasons for my course, which I hope will meet your approval. So many acts of harshness and of incivility have occurred since my removal from Fort Moultrie, which I have not deemed proper to notice or report, that I cannot accept of any civility which may considered as a favor or an act of charity. I hope that the Department will approve of my sending (if the governor will permit it) our women and children to New York. They will be int the way here if we should, unfortunately be engaged in hostilities, and they would embarrass me should I deem it proper too make any sudden move. We are trying daily to strengthen our position. We have now fifty-one guns in position, viz: In barbette, four 42-pounders, three 32-pounders, six 24's, six 8-inch columbiads, and five 8-inch sea-coast howitzers (24); in casemate, twenty-two 32-pounders and two 42-pounders, (24); and to guard the gateway, which has been nearly closed by a heavy stone wall, three 8-inch sea-coast howitzers; and we are now preparing platforms in the parade for the three 10-inch columbiads, which we are unable to raise to their proper positions. I shall have some of the lower embrasures, in which guns are mounted, closed. This will make our little command more secure. From the perfect isolation of our position here it is impossible for us to ascertain with any degree of certainty, the character or extent of the preparations which are being made around us. Everything however, shows that they are exerting all their energies to prevent the entrance of re-enforcements, and to prepare for attacking this work. Saturday night and yesterday (Sunday) they were very actively engaged at work on a battery (commenced Saturday morning) a few hundred yards south of a battery of three guns constructed within the last three weeks in front of Fort Johnson barracks. On Cummings Point, Morris Island, quite an extensive battery or batteries have been constructed within the last week. We thing that there may be both mortars and heavy guns at this point. We see them moving heavy timbers, which may be intended for the construction of a bomb-proof. Judging from the great quantity of material which has been landed in that neighborhood, I think it probable that they may have strengthened the battery which fired on the Star of the West. The channel she came in has been closed, pretty effectually I imagine, by four sunken vessels. Sand hills on Morris Island afford such safe positions for batteries that I fear we shall have to waste a great deal of ammunition before we can succeed in dislodging them from its batteries. Several distant shots have been heard from the direction the mouth of Stone Creek. I presume they have closed that by a heavy battery. It is reported that there is a battery guarding the entrance of the Maffitt Channel, and also that there is a battery of heavy guns on Sullivan's Island (masked from our view by the houses) about three hundred yards to the west of the fort. Fort Moultrie has been greatly strengthened during the last two weeks. Traverses have been erected along the sea front, and merlons, formed of sand bags and earth, constructed between the guns. These merlons, apparently well built, will afford very good protection for the carriages and men, and defilade the parade and greater portion of the quarters from our direct fire. It seems that they have repaired these carriages, and that all the guns are now in position on the sea front. I am, of course, unable to state with any accuracy the character of the armament of their batteries or the number of men they have under arms; we hear that the garrison on Sullivan's Island, at Fort Johnson, Castle Pinckney (the parapet of which is strengthened by sand bags), and on Morris Island amount to about two thousand men. In reference to my communications with the Department, you must bear it in mind that matter is entirely under the control of the governor of this State, who may, whenever he deems fit, entirely prohibit my forwarding any letters or prevent my sending any messenger, to my Government. I shall, however, as long as I can do so, send daily a brief note to the Department the reception of which will show that the channel is still open, and the failure will indicate that our communication has been cut off.

Trusting in God that He will be pleased to save us from the horrors of a civil war.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

ROBERT ANDERSON,
Major, First Artillery, Commanding.

[Inclosure No 1.]

January 21, 1861 - President David Jamison to Major Robert Anderson

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Union Correspondence, etc.

EXECUTIVE OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF WAR,
Charleston, January 19, 1861

Major ROBERT ANDERSON:

SIR: I am instructed by his excellency the governor to inform you that he has directed an officer of the State to procure and carry over with your mails each day to Fort Sumter such supplies of fresh meat and vegetables as you may indicate.

I am, sir, respectfully yours,

D.F. JAMISON.

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[Inclosure No 2.]

January 19, 1861 - Colonel L.M. Hatch to Major Robert Anderson

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Union Correspondence, etc.

HEADQUARTERS QUARTERMASTER'S DEPARTMENT,
Charleston, January 19, 1861

Major ANDERSON:

DEAR SIR: Inclosed please find copy of letter from Secretary of War. Not waiting your request, I shall send by the mail-boat in the morning two hundred pounds of beef and a lot of vegetables. I requested Lieutenant Talbot to ask you to let me know this evening what supplies you would wish sent daily.

Very respectfully,

L.M. HATCH,
Quartermaster-General, South Carolina Militia.

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[Inclosure No 3.]

January 19, 1861 - Colonel L.M. Hatch to President David Jamison

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Union Correspondence, etc.

HEADQUARTERS QUARTERMASTER'S DEPARTMENT,
Charleston, January 19, 1861

Colonel HATCH,
Quartermaster-General:

You are ordered to procure and send down with the mails for Fort Sumter to-morrow a sufficient quantity of fresh meat and vegetables to last the garrison of Fort Sumter for forty-eight hours, and inform Major Anderson that you will purchase and take down every day such provisions from the city market as he may indicate.

D.F. JAMISON.

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[Inclosure No 4.]

January 20, 1861 - Major Robert Anderson to Colonel L.M. Hatch

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Union Correspondence, etc.

FORT SUMTER, S.C., January 20, 1861

Colonel L.M. HATCH,
Quartermaster-General:

DEAR SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your note of the 19th instant, and also to state that as no arrangements have been made by me with government in reference to supplies for this post, I feel compelled to decline the reception of those supplies. I wrote to the honorable Secretary of War yesterday in reference to this matter.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. ANDERSON,
Major, First U. S. Artillery, Commanding.

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  1. Article from Mercury not found.


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January 21, 1861 - President David Jamison to Major Robert Anderson

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Union Correspondence, etc.

EXECUTIVE OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF WAR,
Charleston, January 19, 1861

Major ROBERT ANDERSON:

SIR: I am instructed by his excellency the governor to inform you that he has directed an officer of the State to procure and carry over with your mails each day to Fort Sumter such supplies of fresh meat and vegetables as you may indicate.

I am, sir, respectfully yours,

D.F. JAMISON.

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January 19, 1861 - Colonel L.M. Hatch to Major Robert Anderson

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Union Correspondence, etc.

HEADQUARTERS QUARTERMASTER'S DEPARTMENT,
Charleston, January 19, 1861

Major ANDERSON:

DEAR SIR: Inclosed please find copy of letter from Secretary of War. Not waiting your request, I shall send by the mail-boat in the morning two hundred pounds of beef and a lot of vegetables. I requested Lieutenant Talbot to ask you to let me know this evening what supplies you would wish sent daily.

Very respectfully,

L.M. HATCH,
Quartermaster-General, South Carolina Militia.

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January 19, 1861 - Colonel L.M. Hatch to President David Jamison

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Union Correspondence, etc.

HEADQUARTERS QUARTERMASTER'S DEPARTMENT,
Charleston, January 19, 1861

Colonel HATCH,
Quartermaster-General:

You are ordered to procure and send down with the mails for Fort Sumter to-morrow a sufficient quantity of fresh meat and vegetables to last the garrison of Fort Sumter for forty-eight hours, and inform Major Anderson that you will purchase and take down every day such provisions from the city market as he may indicate.

D.F. JAMISON.

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January 20, 1861 - Major Robert Anderson to Colonel L.M. Hatch

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Union Correspondence, etc.

FORT SUMTER, S.C., January 20, 1861

Colonel L.M. HATCH,
Quartermaster-General:

DEAR SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your note of the 19th instant, and also to state that as no arrangements have been made by me with government in reference to supplies for this post, I feel compelled to decline the reception of those supplies. I wrote to the honorable Secretary of War yesterday in reference to this matter.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. ANDERSON,
Major, First U. S. Artillery, Commanding.

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January 21, 1861 - Captain John Foster to General Joseph Totten

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Union Correspondence, etc.

FORT SUMTER, S.C., January 21, 1861.

General JOS. G. TOTTEN,
Chief Engineer U.S.A., Washington, D.C.;

GENERAL: I have the honor to make the following report of the present condition of the batteries around us occupied or being erected by the troops of the State of South Carolina;

Fort Moultrie.- Until within eight days the work upon this fort, which was executed by several hundred negroes, was confined to the erection of three large traverses on the east half of the sea front, and the enlargement of another that I built upon the same face near the south angle. These traverses were of a size sufficient to contain a temporary bomb-proof shelter, and really served only to screen from our enfilading fire only three guns on the face, and also to cover the south half of the officers' quarters. The three columbiads at the south angle were not covered. But recently the work of preparation to screen themselves from the fire of Fort Sumter has taken a better turn, and the work done is really important. It consists of high and solid merlons, formed of timber, sand bags, and earth, raised between all the guns that can be brought to bear on this fort, from the west side of their fort, and in placing traverses or merlons so as to screen from enfilanding fire all the guns upon the sea front which are arranged to fire upon the channel. The checks of the embrasures are of timber, apparently set on end, like palisades, which I think is objectionable; and I also notice that the exterior slope of the merlous is too great to resist the pressure of the earth, and that the sand bags are pressed out in one or two places. These errors are small, however, compared with the great advantage of these merlons, which from their height (about five feet) completely cover the quarters and barracks as high up as the eaves. The following sketch shows pretty nearly the present arrangement of the fronts that I can see:

146 AOR001b.png

From Fort Sumter seventeen guns in barbette and eight guns in casemate are now ready to fire on Fort Moultrie-twenty-five guns in all.

Of these, four are 8-inch columbiads, five are 8-inch sea-coast howitzers, eight are 42-pounders, and eight are 32-pounders. I have overhauled and fixed each carriage so that it works easily, and made maneuvering implements of which there were none here at first. Besides the above, a 10-inch columbiad is now being bedded by Lieutenant Snyder as a mortar, to throw shells into Fort Moultrie and upon Sullivan's Island.

Battery on the upper or east end of the island.- Of this nothing definite is known, as it is out of sight, and also, I fear, shielded from our fire by intervening sand hills. Its object is to secure the east point of the island, and also have a fire upon the Maffitt Channel.

Battery on Sullivan's Island west of Fort Moultrie.- This is situated about 300 yards to the west of the fort, and is built across a cross-street at a.(See sketch.) It is said to contain five guns, but being masked by old buildings and fences in front of it, I cannot tell whether or not it is so. It is intended to fire on Fort Sumter.

Castle Pinckney remains apparently as it was when taken, with the exception of sand bags, which are placed around the parapet apparently for the purpose of protecting the heads of their sharpshooters. It is reported that some of the guns have been taken from the Castle to arm the new earth batteries on Morris Island and other places.

Battery at Fort Johnson. - This is a small earthen battery for three guns in embrasure, intended to fire on the channel. It is situated next to the old barracks, as shown in rough sketch in the margin. I judge of the calibers of the guns by their reports in firing for practice.

147 AOR001b.png

Second battery near Fort Johnson. - This is now in the process of construction. It appears to be for mortars, as no embrasures are made. It is of sufficient size for three guns or mortars.

Morris Island Battery. - This is the one that fired on the Star of the West. It is about 2,400 or 2,500 yards from us and concealed from view by intervening sand hills. It is a gun battery,and did contain two guns at first. Now I am confident that it contains at least four guns. The troops or the service of the batteries are quartered in the buildings constituting the small-pox hospital over on of which their flag is flying, a red field with white palmetto tree upon it. The flag on Fort Johnson is similar, as is also to one on Castle Pinckney. That on Fort Moultrie is a white field with a green palmetto tree, and a red star in the corner.

Battery on Cummings Point. - This is apparently for mortars, and is of sufficient extent to contain six or eight. A large force of negroes has been at work upon it during the last work. A large quantity of timber has been hauled into it, apparently for shell-proof shelters as well as platforms; most of the timber was too larger for platforms. This battery seems to be for mortars, as no embrasures are yet made. It is within good range of our heavy guns, of which four 8-inch columbiads, three 42-pounder one 8-inch sea-coast howitzer and six 24-pounders on the barbette tier bear upon it; besides, two 32-pounders in the lower tier can fire upon it. This will give a powerful fire. Still, they are apparently providing for it. I have no positive knowledge of the proposed armament of this battery, but I have heard twice from persons who would be apt to know that three mortars are already in it. These are probably the two trophy mortars from the arsenal and the 10-inch mortar from Fort Moultrie.

I have heard heavy firing several times, as though for practice, in the direction of the Stono River, and I presume a small battery has been erected there to guard that approach to the city.

Of the garrison of Castle Pinckney I cannot judge very well. Of that for Fort Moultrie and the other batteries on Sullivan's Island I should judge the number to be about 800. On Morris Island about 500. At Fort Johnson about 100, which will probably be increased with the completion of the second battery to 200.

The temper of the authorities seems to have changed for the better since Mr. Hayne and Mr. Gourdin have been in Washington. The proposition to supply fresh meat and vegetables was made by Governor Pickens on the 19th, but declined by Major Anderson on the following day. A supply of fresh meat and vegetables that had been sent down yesterday by the South Carolina quartermaster-general was returned. In the letter declining the proffered supply Major Anderson requested Governor Pickens to allow the camp women and children to go to New York in the next steamer, and to allow a lighter to come down to take them and their effects to the steamer as she passes. No answer has yet been received to this request. The temper of the common people is not, however, so easily changed from the high pitch of excitement to which it has been wrought to a suddenly conciliatory course, the reason for which they do not perceive.

Our hopes for a pacific solution of the present difficulties are very much increased since Lieutenant Talbolt's return.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J.G. FOSTER,
Captain, Engineers.

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January 22, 1861 - Secretary Joseph Holt to to Hons. Benjamin Fitzpatrick et al

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Union Correspondence, etc.

WAR DEPARTMENT,
Washington, January 22, 1861.

Hon. BENJAMIN FITZPATRICK,
Hon. S.R. MALLORY, Hon. JOHN SLIDELL:

GENTLEMEN: The President has received your communication of the 19th instant,[1] with the copy of a correspondence between yourselves and others, "representing States which have already seceded from the United States, or will have done so before 1st of February next," and Colonel Isaac W. Hayne, of South Carolina, in behalf of the government of that State, in relation to Fort Sumter, and you ask the President "to take into consideration the subject of the correspondence." With this request he has complied, and has directed me to communicate his answer.

In your letter to Colonel Hayne of the 15th instant[2] you propose to him to defer the delivery of a message from the governor of South Carolina to the President, with which he has been intrusted, for a few days, until the President and Colonel Hayne shall have considered the suggestions which you submit. It is unnecessary to refer specially to these suggestions, because the letter addressed to you by Colonel Hayne, of the 17th instant, presents a clear and specific answer to them. In this he says: "I am not clothed with power to make the arrangement you suggest, but provided you can get assurances with which you are entirely satisfied that no re-enforcements will be sent to Fort Sumter in the interval, and that the public peace will not be disturbed by any act of hostility toward South Carolina, I will refer your communication to the authorities of South Carolina, and withholding the communication with which I am at present charged will await further instructions."

From the beginning of the present unhappy troubles, the President has endeavored to perform his executive duties in such a manner as to preserve the peace of the country and prevent bloodshed. This is still his fixed purpose. You, therefore, do him no more than justice in stating that you have assurances (from his public messages, I presume) that, "notwithstanding the circumstances under which Major Anderson left Fort Moultrie and entered Fort Sumter with the forces under his command, it was not taken, and is not held, with any hostile or unfriendly purpose towards your State, but merely as property of the United States, which the President deems it his duty to protect and preserve." You have correctly stated what the President deems to be his duty. His sole object now is, and has been, to act strictly on the defensive, and to authorize no movement against the people of South Carolina unless clearly justified by a hostile movement on their part. He could not have given a better proof of his desire to prevent the effusion of blood than by forbearing to resort to the use of force under the strong provocation of an attack (happily without a fatal result) on an unarmed vessel bearing the flag of the United States.

I am happy to observe that in your letter to Colonel Hayne you express the opinion that it is "especially due from South Carolina to our States, to say nothing of other slaveholding States, that she should, as far as she can consistently with her honor, avoid initiating hostilities between her and the United States, or any other power." To initiate such hostilities against Fort Sumter would, beyond question, be an act of war against the United States.

In regard to the proposition of Colonel Hayne, "that no re-enforcements will be sent to Fort Sumter in the interval, and that the public peace will not be disturbed by any act of hostility towards South Carolina," it is impossible for me to give you any such assurances. The President has no authority to enter into such an agreement or understanding. As an executive officer he is simply bound to protect the public property so far as this may be practicable, and it would be aa manifest violation of his duty to place himself under engagements that he would not perform this duty either for an indefinite or a limited period. At the present moment it is not deemed necessary to re-enforce Major Anderson, because he makes no such request, and feels quite secure in his position. Should his safety, however, require re-enforcements, every effort will be made to supply them.

In regard to an assurance from the President "that the public peace will not be disturbed by any act of hostility toward South Carolina," the answer will readily occur to yourselves. To Congress, and to Congress alone, belongs the power to make war, and it would be an act of usurpation for the Executive to give any assurance that Congress would not exercise this power, however strongly he may be convinced that no such intention exists.

I am glad to be assured from the letter of Colonel Hayne that "Major Anderson and his command do now obtain all necessary supplies, including fresh meat and vegetables, and, I believe, fuel and water, from the city of Charleston, and do now enjoy communication by post and special messenger with the President and will continue to do so, certainly until the door to negotiation has been closed." I trust that these facilities may still be afforded to Major Anderson. This is as it should be. Major Anderson is not menacing Charleston, and I am convinced that the happiest result which can be attained is that both he and the authorities of South Carolina shall remain on their present amicable footing, neither party being bound by any obligation whatever, except the high Christian and moral duty to keep the peace and to avoid all causes of mutual irritation.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. HOLT,
Secretary of War.

  1. Not of record in War Department.
  2. Not of record in War Department.


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January 25, 1861 - Major Robert Anderson to Adjutant-General Samuel Cooper

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Union Correspondence, etc.

No. 20.]
FORT SUMTER, S.C., January 22, 1861.
(Received A.G. O., January 25.)

Colonel S. COOPER.
Adjutant-General:

COLONEL: I have the honor to report that with the exception of continued activity shown yesterday in extending the battery at Cummings Point (Morris Island), everything seemed to be quiet around us. Lieutenant Hall may bring on a copy of the private Navy Signal Book with the signals, and also the designation of the key (or number) agreed upon in concert with the Navy Department. This may be of service. Be pleased to ask Mr. Hall to bring me a supply of best thin ruled note paper, with envelopes. Being cut off from the city I cannot procure this indispensable articles.

I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

ROBERT ANDERSON,
Major, First Artillery, Commanding.

P.S. - No reply as yet to my letter to the Honorable D.F. Jamison.

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January 23, 1861 - Major Robert Anderson to Adjutant-General Samuel Cooper

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Union Correspondence, etc.

No. 21.]
FORT SUMTER, S.C., January 23, 1861.
(Received A.G.O., January 27.)

Colonel S. COOPER,
Adjutant-General:

COLONEL: I have the honor to send herewith a copy of the reply of the Hon. D. F. Jamison to my letter to him about supplies for this garrison and the removal of our women and children, and also a copy of my acknowledgment of the same. I am highly gratified at the courtesy and proper tone of this reply.

The storm which was raging yesterday has continued with unabated severity up to the present moment, and has put a stop to all outdoor work, both with the South Carolinians and ourselves. It is now raining and blowing so heavily and the bay is so rough that I shall not venture to send our boat to Fort Johnson for the mail. Should the storm abate so that I can send our letters off in time for the evening mail I shall send them over. I see by the Coast Survey map that Maffitt's and the Swash Channel are not the same. I was led into that Mistake by an old pilot, who told me that Maffitt's Channel was formerly called the Swash. I will thank you to be pleased, therefore, to erase the words "Swash or" in my letter to the honorable Secretary of War dated the 21 instant, and also to change the word "enfilade" into "defilade," where in the same letter I am describing the work which has been recently executed at Fort Moultrie.[1]

I am, colonel, very respectfully, &c.,

ROBERT ANDERSON,
Major, First Artillery, Commanding.

[Inclosure No. 1.]

January 21, 1861 - President David Jamison to Major Robert Anderson

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Union Correspondence, etc.

EXECUTIVE OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF WAR,
Charleston, January 21, 1861.

Major ROBERT ANDERSON:

SIR: In offering to permit you to purchase in this city, through the instrumentality of an officer of the State, such fresh supplies of provisions as you might need, his excellency the governor was influenced solely by considerations of courtesy; and if he had no other motive for refusing to any of your garrison free access to the city to procure such supplies, he would have been moved by prudential reasons for the safety of your people, in preventing a collision between them and our own citizens. As to the manner of procuring your supplies, his excellency is indifferent whether it is done by the officer referred to, or whether your market supplies are delivered to you at Fort Johnson by the butcher whom you say you have before employed. It is only insisted on that the supplies, if sent, shall be carried over in a boat under an officer of the State who takes to Fort Johnson your daily mails. His excellency desires me to say that he willingly accedes to your request as to the women and children in Fort Sumter, and that he will afford every facility in his power to enable you to remove them from the fort at any time and in any manner that will be most agreeable to them.

I am, sir, respectfully, yours,

D.F. JAMISON.

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[Inclosure No. 2.]

January 22, 1861 - Major Robert Anderson to President David Jamison

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Union Correspondence, etc.

FORT SUMTER, S.C., January 22, 1861.

Hon. D.F. JAMISON,,
Executive Office, Department of War, Charleston:

SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your favor of the 21st instant, and to express my gratification at its tenor. I shall direct my staff officer to write to the contractor in reference to his supplying us with beef, and will communicate with you as soon as the necessary preliminaries are arranged, in order that you may then, if you please, give the requisite instructions for carrying them into effect. Be pleased to express to his excellency the governor my thanks for the kind and prompt manner in which he gave his consent to the proposed transfer of the women and children of this garrison. As there are on Sullivan's Island the families of two of our non-commissioned officers, with their furniture, &c., and also a quantity of private property [including some musical instruments-not public property] belonging to this command, which the first commander of Fort Moultrie, Colonel De Saussure, sent me word he had collected and placed under lock and key, it will be necessary to permit the two non-commissioned officers to go to the island to assist in moving their families, &c. The lighter, it occurs to me, which will be needed to take the families to the steamer, had better go to the island for the property there before coming for the women and children here. As we are all very desirous of guarding against causing any unnecessary excitement, it will afford me great pleasure to have everything done in the most quiet way possible. I shall, consequently, cheerfully govern myself, as far as possible, by the views and wishes of his excellency in reference to this matter, and will be pleased to hear from you what they are. It is my wish, if the weather prove favorable, to ship the families in the Saturday steamer, or the first one after that day.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

ROBERT ANDERSON,
Major, First Artillery, Commanding.

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  1. These corrections made in the text.


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January 21, 1861 - President David Jamison to Major Robert Anderson

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Union Correspondence, etc.

EXECUTIVE OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF WAR,
Charleston, January 21, 1861.

Major ROBERT ANDERSON:

SIR: In offering to permit you to purchase in this city, through the instrumentality of an officer of the State, such fresh supplies of provisions as you might need, his excellency the governor was influenced solely by considerations of courtesy; and if he had no other motive for refusing to any of your garrison free access to the city to procure such supplies, he would have been moved by prudential reasons for the safety of your people, in preventing a collision between them and our own citizens. As to the manner of procuring your supplies, his excellency is indifferent whether it is done by the officer referred to, or whether your market supplies are delivered to you at Fort Johnson by the butcher whom you say you have before employed. It is only insisted on that the supplies, if sent, shall be carried over in a boat under an officer of the State who takes to Fort Johnson your daily mails. His excellency desires me to say that he willingly accedes to your request as to the women and children in Fort Sumter, and that he will afford every facility in his power to enable you to remove them from the fort at any time and in any manner that will be most agreeable to them.

I am, sir, respectfully, yours,

D.F. JAMISON.

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January 22, 1861 - Major Robert Anderson to President David Jamison

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Union Correspondence, etc.

FORT SUMTER, S.C., January 22, 1861.

Hon. D.F. JAMISON,,
Executive Office, Department of War, Charleston:

SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your favor of the 21st instant, and to express my gratification at its tenor. I shall direct my staff officer to write to the contractor in reference to his supplying us with beef, and will communicate with you as soon as the necessary preliminaries are arranged, in order that you may then, if you please, give the requisite instructions for carrying them into effect. Be pleased to express to his excellency the governor my thanks for the kind and prompt manner in which he gave his consent to the proposed transfer of the women and children of this garrison. As there are on Sullivan's Island the families of two of our non-commissioned officers, with their furniture, &c., and also a quantity of private property [including some musical instruments-not public property] belonging to this command, which the first commander of Fort Moultrie, Colonel De Saussure, sent me word he had collected and placed under lock and key, it will be necessary to permit the two non-commissioned officers to go to the island to assist in moving their families, &c. The lighter, it occurs to me, which will be needed to take the families to the steamer, had better go to the island for the property there before coming for the women and children here. As we are all very desirous of guarding against causing any unnecessary excitement, it will afford me great pleasure to have everything done in the most quiet way possible. I shall, consequently, cheerfully govern myself, as far as possible, by the views and wishes of his excellency in reference to this matter, and will be pleased to hear from you what they are. It is my wish, if the weather prove favorable, to ship the families in the Saturday steamer, or the first one after that day.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

ROBERT ANDERSON,
Major, First Artillery, Commanding.

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January 24, 1861 - Adjutant-General Samuel Cooper to Major Robert Anderson

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Union Correspondence, etc.

ADJUTANT-GENERAL'S OFFICE, January 24, 1861.

Major ROBERT ANDERSON,
First Artillery, Commanding Fort Sumter, Charleston, S.C.:

MAJOR: Your letter [No. 19] of the 21st instant, with inclosures, has been received. The Secretary will reply to it in a few days. Meantime the Secretary desires you to inform him what is the nature of the postal arrangements with your post, and whether they are satisfactory to you. Can you send messengers to Charleston for your mails, and is there danger of your men deserting if they are thus employed?

It is observed that you seal your letters with wax-a good precaution, without which there is no certainty that they have not been opened by unauthorized hands.

Please state whether the men sent up to attend a murder trial in Charleston made an attempt to desert, as reported in the papers.

I am, &c.,

S. COOPER,
Adjutant-General.

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January 24, 1861 - Major Robert Anderson to Adjutant-General Samuel Cooper

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Union Correspondence, etc.

No. 22.]
FORT SUMTER, S.C., January 24, 1861.

Colonel S. COOPER,
Adjutant-General:

COLONEL: The storm continued until about daylight this morning. It is still cloudy, but the wind has abated sufficiently to enable our boat to take our mail over to Fort Johnson. I have written to our beef contractor in reference to furnishing us with beef, and also such vegetables as the doctor may deem suitable. The purchase of the latter will, I hope, under existing circumstances, be allowed. A letter has also been written to the agent of the New York line of steamboats about transporting our women and children to New York, where, I hope, the quartermaster will see that they are made comfortable. They will probably leave early next week.

I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

ROBERT ANDERSON,
Major, First Artillery, Commanding.

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January 25, 1861 - Major Robert Anderson to Adjutant-General Samuel Cooper

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Union Correspondence, etc.

No. 23.]
FORT SUMTER, S.C., January 25, 1861.

Colonel S. COOPER,
Adjutant-General:

COLONEL: There is nothing worthy of mention, as far as I know, this morning, except the fact of the New York steamer Columbia having grounded in attempting to go out. She is in the Maffitt's Channel, nearly in front of the Moultrie House; and as she went on when the tide was well up, there is a chance of her remaining where she is for some time. If the authorities here are in earnest about being willing to grant me marketing facilities, it seems to me they will not object to the Government sending us provisions, groceries, and coal from New York. We can get along pretty well with what we have, but some additions to our supplies would add greatly to our comfort. By burning the old buildings, and, if very hard pushed, the spare gun carriages, &c., we can keep up our necessary fires for three months.

I am, colonel, your obedient servant,

ROBERT ANDERSON,
Major, First Artillery, Commanding.

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January 27, 1861 - Major Robert Anderson to Adjutant-General Samuel Cooper

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Union Correspondence, etc.

No. 24.]
FORT SUMTER, S.C., January 27, 1861.
(Received A.G.O., January 30.)

Colonel S. COOPER,
Adjutant-General:

COLONEL: I have the honor to state, in reply to your letter of the 24th instant, that our letters, &c., are sent by boat, daily, at 12 m., to Fort Johnson in a sealed package, addressed to the postmaster in Charleston, and that the return boat brings our mail in a package bearing the post-office seal. I am satisfied with the existing arrangement. The governor told Lieutenant Talbot, when he saw him on his return from Washington, that I might, if I chose, send up to the city for my mails, but that he thought it would not be judicious for me to do so. I do not apprehend that there would be the slightest danger of any of my men deserting if thus employed, but think they might be insulted or maltreated. The report to which your refer, about the attempt of the men who were sent to the city to attend a murder trial to desert, is absolutely and entirely false. Lieutenant Davis [who refused to take them, though offered arms by several persons and urged to accept them] says that the men conducted themselves with the greatest propriety, and that, although handsomely entertained, they returned perfectly sober. I have not deemed it advisable to notice in any way the false reports which have originated in Charleston and elsewhere about us. I send herewith a slip containing two such reports. Lieutenant Meade states, and I have no doubt with entire truthfulness, that he made no statement whilst absent to any person about my preferences or my opinions, either military or political, and that the inferences given in the article in the Petersburg paper were not deducible from any facts stated by him. The other article, in the Baltimore paper, stating that a boat containing three of my men was fired into from Sullivan's Island, is also entirely untrue. I cannot see the object to be attained by the circulation of such untruths. The object of one, which has been repeated more than once, that we are getting fresh provisions from the Charleston market, is apparent enough, viz, to show they are treating us courteously. But even that is not a fact. I send herewith a copy of a letter written to our former beef contractor about furnishing us with meat, &c., to which no reply has yet been received-why, I am unable to ascertain; so that, up to this moment, we have not derived the least advantage from the to this moment, we have not derived the least advantage from the Charleston markets; and I can confidently say that none of my command desire to receive anything from the city for which we are not to pay. Under the daily expectation of the return of Lieutenant Hall, I have deferred sending in a memorandum of the commissary stores on hand. There are now here 38 barrels pork, 37 barrels flour, 13 barrels hard bread, 2 barrels beans, 1 barrel coffee, 1/2 barrel sugar, 3 barrels vinegar, 10 pounds candles, 40 pounds soap, and 3/4 barrel salt. You will see from this that for my present command [especially after the departure of our women and children] we shall have an ample supply of pork and bread. It is a pity that my instructions had not been complied with, which would have given us the small stores which are now deficient, and which we shall not object to receiving as soon as the safety of our country will admit of our getting them. Nothing of importance to report. The Columbia is still aground in the Maffitt's Channel.

I am, colonel, your obedient servant,

ROBERT ANDERSON,
Major, First Artillery, Commanding.

[Inclosure No. 1.]

January 24, 1861 - Captain Truman Seymour to Daniel McSweeney

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Union Correspondence, etc.

FORT SUMTER, January 24, 1861.
Mr. DANIEL McSWEENEY:

SIR: I am directed by Major Anderson, commanding this post, to ascertain whether you will furnish such fresh beef and vegetables as may be required here; the beef upon the terms of the contract under which you supplied Fort Moultrie; the vegetables to be purchased by you for us at fair market prices; the whole to be delivered as hitherto, four times in ten days, at some wharf in Charleston, for transportation to Fort Johnson, where it will be received by this garrison. This arrangement, which has been approved by the governor of South Carolina, it is desired shall go into effect immediately, and if you consent to it, you can send 184 pounds of fresh beef at a time, at such hour and wherever Quartermaster-General Hatch [120 Meeting street] may advise you. Of the vegetables you will be further directed. Please acknowledge the receipt of this as soon as possible, in order, if necessary, that other arrangements may be made.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

T. SEYMOUR,
Captain, U.S. Army.

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[Inclosure No. 2.]

January 23-24, 1861 - Newspaper Extracts

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Union Correspondence, etc.

Copy of extracts from Baltimore Sun and Petersburg Daily Express.

[By telegraph for the Baltimore Sun.]

THE LATEST FROM THE SOUTH.

FROM SOUTH CAROLINA - A BOAT FROM FORT SUMTER FIRED AT BY THE SOUTH CAROLINIANS - HON. JEFF. DAVIS SPOKEN OF FOR PRESIDENT OF THE SOUTHERN CONFEDERACY.

CHARLESTON, JANUARY 23.-The battery on the beach at Sullivan's Island fired into a boat from Fort Sumter on Monday. There were three men in it, who approached the beach with muffled oars. The sentry at the battery hailed them and warned them off. Failing to obey the summons, the sentry fired musketry into the boat, when it turned round and went away. Soon after those at the battery heard a noise like the hauling up of a boat at Fort Sumter. One of the men in the boat is said to have been wounded badly. Their object is supposed to have been desertion, but some day it was a desperate effort to run the gauntlet of the sentries and spike the guns of the battery.

[The Daily Express, Petersburg, Va., Tuesday morning, January 22, 1861.]

COMING TO THE POINT - A PRACTICAL MOVEMENT.

THE POSITION OF MAJOR ANDERSON. - Lieutenant R. K. Meade, of the Engineer Corps, at Fort Sumter, has been in our city, on a visit home, for several days past, Several gentlemen with whom he has conversed inform us that he speaks in the highest terms of Major Anderson, not only as a brave and fearless soldier, but as a strong and true Southern man, his position in the present state of affairs, however, rendering it impossible for him to take any other position before the people of the South and of the Union. He does not feel in the slightest complimented by the fanatical cannon firing in his honor at the North, and it is with pain, not fear nor even embarrassment, that he realizes the present attitude of the South towards him. That he loves the South, that he prefers it, every social tie gives ample testimony. He is bound by the holy ties of wedlock to one of the fairest of the fair of Georgia, a daughter of General Clinch. He has four devoted brothers, every one of whom, it is said, is a strong secessionist. Add to this that he is a Southerner by birth, and a descendant of Revolutionary sires, we need hardly more to give us assurance that he not only loves his native South, but will at the proper time, and in an honorable manner, draw the sword in her defense. These are simple inferences from facts as known. Not a syllable has fallen from the lips of Lieutenant Meade to lead to the remotest deduction that Major Anderson will not perform his whole duty to the Government of the United States. But that he will be hand in hand with the South as soon as he may be, with honor, relieved from his position, we have little to doubt.

MAJOR ANDERSON. - "A Comrade" writes to the Columbus (Ga.) Enquirer concerning the late removal of Major Anderson to Fort Sumter, and in defense of his action and character. The conclusion is: "Major Anderson is a Southern man-born and raised in the noble old 'Dark and Bloody Ground.' He will be found on the side of the South when this government is dismembered, and, when his critical position has been properly understood, his name will be fully exonerated from the grave charges which have been made against it by those who have been deplorably misinformed upon all the points of military honor which have governed this truly gallant and meritorious officer."

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January 24, 1861 - Captain Truman Seymour to Daniel McSweeney

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Union Correspondence, etc.

FORT SUMTER, January 24, 1861.
Mr. DANIEL McSWEENEY:

SIR: I am directed by Major Anderson, commanding this post, to ascertain whether you will furnish such fresh beef and vegetables as may be required here; the beef upon the terms of the contract under which you supplied Fort Moultrie; the vegetables to be purchased by you for us at fair market prices; the whole to be delivered as hitherto, four times in ten days, at some wharf in Charleston, for transportation to Fort Johnson, where it will be received by this garrison. This arrangement, which has been approved by the governor of South Carolina, it is desired shall go into effect immediately, and if you consent to it, you can send 184 pounds of fresh beef at a time, at such hour and wherever Quartermaster-General Hatch [120 Meeting street] may advise you. Of the vegetables you will be further directed. Please acknowledge the receipt of this as soon as possible, in order, if necessary, that other arrangements may be made.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

T. SEYMOUR,
Captain, U.S. Army.

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January 23-24, 1861 - Newspaper Extracts

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Union Correspondence, etc.

Copy of extracts from Baltimore Sun and Petersburg Daily Express.

[By telegraph for the Baltimore Sun.]

THE LATEST FROM THE SOUTH.

FROM SOUTH CAROLINA - A BOAT FROM FORT SUMTER FIRED AT BY THE SOUTH CAROLINIANS - HON. JEFF. DAVIS SPOKEN OF FOR PRESIDENT OF THE SOUTHERN CONFEDERACY.

CHARLESTON, JANUARY 23.-The battery on the beach at Sullivan's Island fired into a boat from Fort Sumter on Monday. There were three men in it, who approached the beach with muffled oars. The sentry at the battery hailed them and warned them off. Failing to obey the summons, the sentry fired musketry into the boat, when it turned round and went away. Soon after those at the battery heard a noise like the hauling up of a boat at Fort Sumter. One of the men in the boat is said to have been wounded badly. Their object is supposed to have been desertion, but some day it was a desperate effort to run the gauntlet of the sentries and spike the guns of the battery.

[The Daily Express, Petersburg, Va., Tuesday morning, January 22, 1861.]

COMING TO THE POINT - A PRACTICAL MOVEMENT.

THE POSITION OF MAJOR ANDERSON. - Lieutenant R. K. Meade, of the Engineer Corps, at Fort Sumter, has been in our city, on a visit home, for several days past, Several gentlemen with whom he has conversed inform us that he speaks in the highest terms of Major Anderson, not only as a brave and fearless soldier, but as a strong and true Southern man, his position in the present state of affairs, however, rendering it impossible for him to take any other position before the people of the South and of the Union. He does not feel in the slightest complimented by the fanatical cannon firing in his honor at the North, and it is with pain, not fear nor even embarrassment, that he realizes the present attitude of the South towards him. That he loves the South, that he prefers it, every social tie gives ample testimony. He is bound by the holy ties of wedlock to one of the fairest of the fair of Georgia, a daughter of General Clinch. He has four devoted brothers, every one of whom, it is said, is a strong secessionist. Add to this that he is a Southerner by birth, and a descendant of Revolutionary sires, we need hardly more to give us assurance that he not only loves his native South, but will at the proper time, and in an honorable manner, draw the sword in her defense. These are simple inferences from facts as known. Not a syllable has fallen from the lips of Lieutenant Meade to lead to the remotest deduction that Major Anderson will not perform his whole duty to the Government of the United States. But that he will be hand in hand with the South as soon as he may be, with honor, relieved from his position, we have little to doubt.

MAJOR ANDERSON. - "A Comrade" writes to the Columbus (Ga.) Enquirer concerning the late removal of Major Anderson to Fort Sumter, and in defense of his action and character. The conclusion is: "Major Anderson is a Southern man-born and raised in the noble old 'Dark and Bloody Ground.' He will be found on the side of the South when this government is dismembered, and, when his critical position has been properly understood, his name will be fully exonerated from the grave charges which have been made against it by those who have been deplorably misinformed upon all the points of military honor which have governed this truly gallant and meritorious officer."

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January 28, 1861 - Captain John Foster to General Joseph Totten

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Union Correspondence, etc.

FORT SUMTER, S.C., January 27, 1861.

General JOS. G. TOTTEN,
Chief Engineer U.S. Army:

GENERAL: I have the honor to report that since the date of my last letter very little has been done by the troops of South Carolina around us, in consequence of the continued storm of rain and wind that has prevailed. The little that has been done comprises the completion of the mortar battery, situated to the southeast of Fort Johnson, on James Island, and the enlargement of the battery on Cummings Point by extending it towards the east. It now occupies the position shown in red in the marginal sketch.[1] The position of the other battery on Morris Island is also shown in red. This is called by the Charlestonians "Fort Morris," and I will so designate it in future.

The two or three guard-boats that the authorities have in use are constantly employed in watching the bar, and evidently have signals by which they can communicate intelligence at night as well as in the day. On the morning of the 25th the steamer Columbia, Captain Berry [who was the first to hoist the palmetto flag on board his vessel], in leaving the harbor by the Maffitt Channel, ran on shore between the Moultrie House and Bowman's Jetty, on Sullivan's Island. Despite all efforts to get her off at each high tide [and we have had several very high ones since], she still lies in the same position. The probability is that she will go to pieces if it should happen to blow hard from the south or eastward. The cause of this casualty is undoubtedly found in the fact that the taking up of the outer end of Bowman's Jetty has caused a deposition below it, which has diminished the depth of water, so that a vessel has now to follow a winding course very much like the red [broken] line in the marginal sketch. The difficulty of navigating

156 AOR001b.png

the sharp turn opposite where the Columbia now lies is very much increased by the opposite effects of flood and ebb tide, the latter tending to set the vessel on shore.

Going out in the haze of the morning, the Columbia probably failed to observe the turn of tide, and could not turn quickly enough, with a full head of steam, to clear the beach. Another of the steamers of the same line came in through the main ship channel last evening, being piloted in by one of the guard-boats.

In Fort Sumter everything goes on quite smoothly. I have done little during the past week, on account of the storm, besides policing, removing materials, and strengthening the filling of the openings for the embrasures of the second tier. One 10-inch columbiad has also been put in position on the parade to throw shells into Fort Moultrie, and surrounded by a strong traverse to avoid all danger from a possible bursting of the piece. Although all of the cement and bricks are used up, and the extreme scarcity of fuel does not permit the burning of shells for lime, I can manage with dry stone to strengthen all parts that require it. I do not propose to discharge my force of forty-three men at present, but to employ them at such work as from time to time becomes necessary. All of them will be of great service in case we have to sustain a cannonade, and the majority of them will also be of material aid in resisting a sudden attack. Terre is not a particle of truth in the many reports that have crept into the papers about mutinies, &c. The soldiers are in excellent spirits and full of confidence. Those of my men that I have discharged of late have left with great reluctance. In fine, the morale at present is very high.

The trouble that I had with my men soon after the command came over, which resulted in a rapidly thinning out of the force, has long since ceased. Every man, however, that is discharged is beset as soon as he reaches town for information, and in some instances they have played upon the credulity of their questioners. In other instances, the information given has been magnified and distorted. And in one case, that of Lieutenant Davis, who went to town on the 19th in charge of four soldiers summoned a witnesses in a murder trial, an effort was made to convince him that his men, having been tampered with, had uttered threats against him, and that he should arm himself before trusting himself to come down with them alone in a boat. Lieutenant Davis declined their proffer of arms. It appears that there was no circumstance to warrant this attempt to place Lieutenant Davis in a false position towards his men, and to give cause for reports prejudicial to the fidelity of the soldiers. The report in the papers that the men attempted to jump out of the window to escape, is utterly without foundation. So, also, is the report that a boat from Fort Sumter, in attempting to reconnoiter the battery on Morris Island, had been fired into by the sentry, and one man wounded. No boat has ever left Fort Sumter for such a purpose, and I question whether it was a boat that the sentry fired at. In fact, it is not safe to credit any reports coming from this region, except such as are favorable to the Government of the United States. Even the statements that emanated from high authority and were widely circulated, to the effect that this command was supplied with fresh provisions, &c., are not strictly true, for we have not as yet received any.

One lot as sent down on the 20th by the State authorities, which Major Anderson declined to receive. His proposition to get them from the regular contractor, and to pay for them, was accepted; but up to this time [10 a.m. of the 27th] we have not received anything from the contractor in town.

Lieutenant Meade returned on Wednesday, the 23rd, but on account of the storm was not able to get to the fort before the following day. Both he and Lieutenant Snyder having volunteered for the duty, I have entered them upon the regular roster for guard duty, two of the officers of the command being sick, and one absent. It does not interfere with our regular duties.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J.G. FOSTER,
Captain, Engineers.

  1. Here omitted. See sketch in Foster to Totten, February 5


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January 29, 1861 - General Joseph Totten to Captain John Foster

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Union Correspondence, etc.

ENGINEER DEPARTMENT, Washington, January 28, 1861.

Captain J.G. FOSTER,
Corps of Engineers, Charleston, S.C.:

SIR: I have the pleasure to inform you that $5,000 was remitted on Saturday last, the 26th instant, to the assistant treasurer at New York, to be held subject to your check, and that &10,000 in addition will be remitted to him, for the same purpose, to-day, in fulfillment of two other requisitions heretofore issued in your favor for $5,000 each, as already advised.

You will please return to Lieutenant Gillmore, out of these funds, the $1,500 placed by him to your credit with the assistant treasurer at New York, on the 10th instant, and he will be instructed to forward to you a proper receipt for the same.

This communication, and all subsequent letters, will be inclosed in an envelope, sealed with red wax, impressed with the Department seal, and it is desirable that all your future communications may be also sealed with wax, instead of the ordinary way.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JOS. G. TOTTEN,
Brevet Brigadier-General, and Colonel of Engineers.

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January 29, 1861 - Major Robert Anderson to Colonel Samuel Cooper

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Union Correspondence, etc.

FORT SUMTER, S.C., January 29, 1861.
(Received A.G.O., February 1.)

Colonel S. COOPER,
Adjutant-General U.S. Army:

COLONEL: The South Carolinians are at work in large force on Cummingsf Point, apparently framing heavy timbers, for what purpose I am unable yet to state. They succeeded this morning, favored by a very high tide, in getting the Columbia off. I send herewith two slips cut from yesterday's Mercury, which show unmistakably the animus of these people. They are determined to bring on a collision with the General Government. Everything around us shows this to be their determination and their aim. I had a contract made yesterday for the transportation of the women attached to this command. The number is much greater than the legal allowance, but under the present excited state of feeling toward our command it would not do to send to the city or to Sullivan's Island any of the relatives of our soldiers' wives who have been living with them. The number who will be sent [twenty] embraces those attached to the companies and the wives of the members of the band, and also the wives of the non-commissioned staff. Inclosed you will also receive the muster and pay rolls of this command, which have been signed by the husbands of the women. I will thank you to have them sent by the Pay Department to the paymaster in New York, with instructions to hand the pay to the women. I will thank you also to have the necessary instructions sent to New York for the rations, &c., for these women and children.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

ROBERT ANDERSON,
Major, First Artillery, Commanding.

[Inclosure No. 1.]

? - Obituary for Thaddeus S. Strawinski

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Union Correspondence, etc.

OBITUARY. - Died, on Saturday night, at the Marine Hospital, Thaddeus S. Strawinski, aged 18 years and 7 days, from an accidental wound from a revolver. This promising young man was on duty in the Columbia Artillery at Fort Moultrie when the sad accident occurred. He was a noble fellow, and, just a week after entering the freshman class of the South Carolina College, with his spirited father joined the ranks at the call of the State. While on the litter being carried to the hospital he said to those who were conveying him: "Friends, O, how sorry I am you are to attack Fort Sumter without me!" During his sufferings he mourned that he could not be at the taking of the fort. He was calm and resigned, and met his end prayerfully, with the Lord's Prayer on his lips. A mother's gentle influence soothed his dying hour, and a soldier's spirit nerved a father's heart to resign his son to his Creator. The sympathy of the whole community is with them in their bereavement.
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[Inclosure No. 2.]

? - Resolution

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Union Correspondence, etc.

Mr. Yeadon, from the committee of conference on the disagreeing votes of the two houses on that clause of the appropriation bill which appropriates $30,000 for dredging Maffitt's Channel, submitted a report recommending the adoption of the following: "For deepening or otherwise improving Maffitt's Channel, $30,000, to be drawn by and expended under the direction of a commission, as follows: Messrs. George A. Trenholm, Henry Gourdin, George N. Reynolds, W. G. De Saussure, F. I. Poroher, Hugh E. Vincent, and the mayor of Charleston ex officio: Provided, The work shall not be resumed until Fort Sumter passes into the possession of the authorities of the State, and all the troops of the United States shall be removed from the harbor of Charleston."

The report was agreed to.

Mr. Buist offered the following resolution:

"Resolved, That it is the opinion of the general assembly that no sessions of the courts of law or equity in this State should be holden so long as the Government at Washington has control of the fortress known as Fort Sumter."

Ten members objecting, the resolution was ordered for consideration on Monday.

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? - Obituary for Thaddeus S. Strawinski

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Union Correspondence, etc.

OBITUARY. - Died, on Saturday night, at the Marine Hospital, Thaddeus S. Strawinski, aged 18 years and 7 days, from an accidental wound from a revolver. This promising young man was on duty in the Columbia Artillery at Fort Moultrie when the sad accident occurred. He was a noble fellow, and, just a week after entering the freshman class of the South Carolina College, with his spirited father joined the ranks at the call of the State. While on the litter being carried to the hospital he said to those who were conveying him: "Friends, O, how sorry I am you are to attack Fort Sumter without me!" During his sufferings he mourned that he could not be at the taking of the fort. He was calm and resigned, and met his end prayerfully, with the Lord's Prayer on his lips. A mother's gentle influence soothed his dying hour, and a soldier's spirit nerved a father's heart to resign his son to his Creator. The sympathy of the whole community is with them in their bereavement.
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? - Resolution

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Union Correspondence, etc.

Mr. Yeadon, from the committee of conference on the disagreeing votes of the two houses on that clause of the appropriation bill which appropriates $30,000 for dredging Maffitt's Channel, submitted a report recommending the adoption of the following: "For deepening or otherwise improving Maffitt's Channel, $30,000, to be drawn by and expended under the direction of a commission, as follows: Messrs. George A. Trenholm, Henry Gourdin, George N. Reynolds, W. G. De Saussure, F. I. Poroher, Hugh E. Vincent, and the mayor of Charleston ex officio: Provided, The work shall not be resumed until Fort Sumter passes into the possession of the authorities of the State, and all the troops of the United States shall be removed from the harbor of Charleston."

The report was agreed to.

Mr. Buist offered the following resolution:

"Resolved, That it is the opinion of the general assembly that no sessions of the courts of law or equity in this State should be holden so long as the Government at Washington has control of the fortress known as Fort Sumter."

Ten members objecting, the resolution was ordered for consideration on Monday.

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January 30, 1861 - Major Robert Anderson to Adjutant-General Samuel Cooper

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Union Correspondence, etc.

No. 27.]
FORT SUMTER, S.C., January 30, 1861.
(Received A.G.O., February 4.)

Colonel S. COOPER,
Adjutant-General:

COLONEL: They are still busily engaged at work on Cummings Point. I am not yet certain what they are going to put there. There was very great activity and stir in the harbor last night. The lookout ship outside the bar displayed a light about half past 11, which was answered by rockets by the guard-boats, of which we noticed four on duty, and soon after two guns were fired from the battery on Morris Island, and at half past 1 o'clock this morning two guns were fired from Fort Moultrie. We could not see any vessels in the offing, but they might have been visible to those on the guard-boats [steamers]. I do hope that no attempt will be made by our friends to throw supplies in; their doing so would do more harm than good. The steamboat company did not send down for our women and children yesterday as they promised; why, I do not know.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

ROBERT ANDERSON,
Major, First Artillery, Commanding.

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January 31, 1861 - Major Robert Anderson to Adjutant-General Samuel Cooper

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Union Correspondence, etc.

No. 28.]
FORT SUMTER, S.C., January 31, 1861.
(Received A.G.O., February 4.)]

Colonel S. COOPER,
Adjutant-General:

COLONEL: The South Carolinians are still busily engaged at work at two places on Cummings Point. They are using heavy timbers, which they square and frame. Last night they worked at least half the night. The agent of the New York steamers informed us yesterday that he could not get a lighter to come down for the women and children, but that he will send one for them to-morrow, so as to take them in the Saturday steamer. No reply, as yet, from the Charleston butcher, our beef contractor. I presume that he dare not send us any provisions, for fear that he will be regarded as a traitor to South Carolina for furnishing comfort and aid to her enemies.

God save our country.

I am, colonel, your obedient servant,

ROBERT ANDERSON,
Major, First Artillery, Commanding.

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January 31, 1861 - Major Robert Anderson to Adjutant-General Samuel Cooper

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Union Correspondence, etc.

No. 29.]
FORT SUMTER, S.C., January 31, 1861.
[Received A.G.O., February 4.]

Colonel S. COOPER,
Adjutant-General:

COLONEL: I hasten to write this letter, to be taken to the city by my friend, the Hon. Robert N. Gourdin, to say that the butcher has sent down a supply of fresh beef, with a note from him stating that he had not received my note, and that he did not, therefore, know of my order to him to continue my supplies as when I was in Fort Moultrie. He states that he sends the beef to-day in compliance with instructions from Mr. Gourdin, who has received a letter from me, in which I had alluded to my having written to him about it. He concluded by saying that he will cheerfully send what I require. Mr. Gourdin says that his excellency the governor is very desirous that we shall receive our supplies regularly, and thinks that there can be no difficulty in reference to groceries also. Hoping in God that there can be no further difficulty of any sort in this harbor,

I am, colonel, respectfully, your obedient servant,

ROBERT ANDERSON,
Major, First Artillery, Commanding.

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January 31, 1861 - Captain John Foster to General Joseph Totten

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Union Correspondence, etc.

FORT SUMTER, S.C., January 31, 1861.

General Jos. G. TOTTEN,
Chief Engineer U.S. Army, Washington, D.C.:

GENERAL: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 28th instant, informing me that $15,000 was placed to my credit with the assistant treasurer of the United States at New York. This relieves me from my present embarrassment. I shall, however, require $5,000 more for Fort Sumter by the end of the month of February.

The operations of the South Carolinians around us continue to be carried on with activity by means of a large force of negroes. The battery on Cummings Point, mentioned in my last letters, is being enlarged into a field work, the parapet of which is not sufficiently formed to distinguish the trace with accuracy. To the west of this field work they have commenced what appears to be a redoubt. This is quite near the western point of Cummings Point.

Steamers are quite active, especially at night, in delivering materials at this point. A very large quantity of timber has been delivered, in rafts, and used for revetments, platforms, and, apparently, bomb-proof shelters.

On Sullivan's Island I have learned that the battery in the cross street opposite Dr. Ravenel's house, also opposite where the chaplain, Rev. Mr. Harris [now at Fort Washington], lived, is for mortars, apparently, as no embrasures are formed, but that neither guns or mortars are, as yet, placed in it. The batteries on the island above Fort Moultrie are two in number. The first is only a short distance above the Moultrie House, and about 1,460 yards above Fort Moultrie. It is armed with three guns, either 24-pounders or 32-pounders. It is not in sight of this fort, being in range of and beyond the Moultrie House. Its position is opposite that portion of the Maffitt Channel which comes closest to the island.

The second battery is at the upper or east end of the island, and is armed with two guns, 24 or 32 pounders.

The last information from the island gave the number of men there as 1,450. But of these a very large number are raw recruits for the regular regiment that they are forming.

In this fort we are hard at work perfecting the arrangements for defense and offense, and creating new ones. Three 10-inch columbiads and four 8-inch columbiads [for which there are no carriages] are arranged as mortars.

The women and children are to leave for New York to-morrow by steamer.

The authorities have promised to send over my private effects from Sullivan's Island, but have declined to allow me, or any one sent by me, to go over to collect them and pack them. I am, however, pleased to secure what i can in the way that is indicated by the authorities. I will write again in detail as soon as I can determine the trace of the works on Cummings Point.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J.G. FOSTER,
Captain, Engineers.

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February 1, 1861 - Adjutant-General Samuel Cooper to Major Robert Anderson

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Union Correspondence, etc.

ADJUTANT-GENERAL'S OFFICE, Washington, D.C., February 1, 1861.'

Major ROBERT ANDERSON,
Commanding Fort Sumter, S.C.:

MAJOR: The President deeming it unnecessary longer to detain Lieutenant Hall, he will start this afternoon for his post. By him I send this letter to inform you of the receipt of your several letters, up to No. 26, inclusive.

The matters pertaining to Colonel Hayne's mission not being yet fully determined, I am unable to say more from the Secretary of War than that your course in relation to the tender of provisions from the governor of South Carolina, and in all other matters which have come to the knowledge of the Department, is approved to the fullest extent.

I am, &c.,

S. COOPER,
Adjutant-General.

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February 1, 1861 - Major Robert Anderson to Adjutant-General Samuel Cooper

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Union Correspondence, etc.

No. 30.]
FORT SUMTER, S.C., February 1, 1861.

Colonel S. COOPER, Adjutant-General:

COLONEL: Nothing unusual has occurred, as far as I know, around us. They are still engaged working on Cummings Point. The lighter is now here, loading with women, children, and baggage. They are to leave the city in the steamer for New York to-morrow.

I am, colonel, your obedient servant,

ROBERT ANDERSON,
Major, First Artillery, Commanding.

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February 1, 1861 - Adjutant-General Samuel Cooper to Major Theophilus Holmes

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Union Correspondence, etc.

ADJUTANT-GENERAL'S OFFICE,
Washington, D.C., February 1, 1861.

Major T.H. HOLMES,
Eighth Infantry, Commanding Fort Columbus,
Governor's Island, N.Y.:

SIR: About twenty women and children from Major Anderson's command at Fort Sumter are on their way to New York, and application will probably be made to receive them at Fort Columbus. Should this be the case you will please make them as comfortable as circumstances will permit, and give rations to such as are properly laundresses of companies. If better quarters can be thus secured to them they can be sent to Fort Wood.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

S. COOPER,
Adjutant-General.

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February 2, 1861 - Major Robert Anderson to Adjutant-General Samuel Cooper

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Union Correspondence, etc.

No. 31.]
FORT SUMTER, S.C., February 2, 1861.
(Received A. G. O., February 6.)

Colonel S. COOPER, Adjutant-General:

COLONEL: I received a letter yesterday from Mr. Gourdin, in which he says: "I saw his excellency this evening, and he makes no objection to your groceries being sent you." The South Carolinians were, we thought, occupied nearly all last night on the works at Cummings Point. One of them is now probably twelve or fifteen feet high, and appears to be bomb-proof, and may be intended to defilade a battery pointing on the channel from our fire. From the energy wi